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gawk: Extension Sample Inplace

 16.7.4 Enabling In-Place File Editing
 The 'inplace' extension emulates GNU 'sed''s '-i' option, which performs
 "in-place" editing of each input file.  It uses the bundled
 'inplace.awk' include file to invoke the extension properly:
      # inplace --- load and invoke the inplace extension.
      @load "inplace"
      # Please set INPLACE_SUFFIX to make a backup copy.  For example, you may
      # want to set INPLACE_SUFFIX to .bak on the command line or in a BEGIN rule.
      # By default, each filename on the command line will be edited inplace.
      # But you can selectively disable this by adding an inplace=0 argument
      # prior to files that you do not want to process this way.  You can then
      # reenable it later on the commandline by putting inplace=1 before files
      # that you wish to be subject to inplace editing.
      # N.B. We call inplace_end() in the BEGINFILE and END rules so that any
      # actions in an ENDFILE rule will be redirected as expected.
      BEGIN {
          inplace = 1         # enabled by default
          if (_inplace_filename != "")
              inplace_end(_inplace_filename, INPLACE_SUFFIX)
          if (inplace)
              inplace_begin(_inplace_filename = FILENAME, INPLACE_SUFFIX)
              _inplace_filename = ""
      END {
          if (_inplace_filename != "")
              inplace_end(_inplace_filename, INPLACE_SUFFIX)
    For each regular file that is processed, the extension redirects
 standard output to a temporary file configured to have the same owner
 and permissions as the original.  After the file has been processed, the
 extension restores standard output to its original destination.  If
 'INPLACE_SUFFIX' is not an empty string, the original file is linked to
 a backup file name created by appending that suffix.  Finally, the
 temporary file is renamed to the original file name.
    Note that the use of this feature can be controlled by placing
 'inplace=0' on the command-line prior to listing files that should not
 be processed this way.  You can reenable inplace editing by adding an
 'inplace=1' argument prior to files that should be subject to inplace
    The '_inplace_filename' variable serves to keep track of the current
 filename so as to not invoke 'inplace_end()' before processing the first
    If any error occurs, the extension issues a fatal error to terminate
 processing immediately without damaging the original file.
    Here are some simple examples:
      $ gawk -i inplace '{ gsub(/foo/, "bar") }; { print }' file1 file2 file3
    To keep a backup copy of the original files, try this:
      $ gawk -i inplace -v INPLACE_SUFFIX=.bak '{ gsub(/foo/, "bar") }
      > { print }' file1 file2 file3
    Please note that, while the extension does attempt to preserve
 ownership and permissions, it makes no attempt to copy the ACLs from the
 original file.
    If the program dies prematurely, as might happen if an unhandled
 signal is received, a temporary file may be left behind.
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