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gawk: Group Functions

 10.6 Reading the Group Database
 Much of the discussion presented in ⇒Passwd Functions applies to
 the group database as well.  Although there has traditionally been a
 well-known file ('/etc/group') in a well-known format, the POSIX
 standard only provides a set of C library routines ('<grp.h>' and
 'getgrent()') for accessing the information.  Even though this file may
 exist, it may not have complete information.  Therefore, as with the
 user database, it is necessary to have a small C program that generates
 the group database as its output.  'grcat', a C program that "cats" the
 group database, is as follows:
       * grcat.c
       * Generate a printable version of the group database.
      #include <stdio.h>
      #include <grp.h>
      main(int argc, char **argv)
          struct group *g;
          int i;
          while ((g = getgrent()) != NULL) {
              printf("%s:%s:%ld:", g->gr_name, g->gr_passwd,
                                           (long) g->gr_gid);
              for (i = 0; g->gr_mem[i] != NULL; i++) {
                  printf("%s", g->gr_mem[i]);
                  if (g->gr_mem[i+1] != NULL)
          return 0;
    Each line in the group database represents one group.  The fields are
 separated with colons and represent the following information:
 Group Name
      The group's name.
 Group Password
      The group's encrypted password.  In practice, this field is never
      used; it is usually empty or set to '*'.
 Group ID Number
      The group's numeric group ID number; the association of name to
      number must be unique within the file.  (On some systems it's a C
      'long', and not an 'int'.  Thus, we cast it to 'long' for all
 Group Member List
      A comma-separated list of usernames.  These users are members of
      the group.  Modern Unix systems allow users to be members of
      several groups simultaneously.  If your system does, then there are
      elements '"group1"' through '"groupN"' in 'PROCINFO' for those
      group ID numbers.  (Note that 'PROCINFO' is a 'gawk' extension;
      ⇒Built-in Variables.)
    Here is what running 'grcat' might produce:
      $ grcat
      -| wheel:*:0:arnold
      -| nogroup:*:65534:
      -| daemon:*:1:
      -| kmem:*:2:
      -| staff:*:10:arnold,miriam,andy
      -| other:*:20:
    Here are the functions for obtaining information from the group
 database.  There are several, modeled after the C library functions of
 the same names:
      # group.awk --- functions for dealing with the group file
      BEGIN {
          # Change to suit your system
          _gr_awklib = "/usr/local/libexec/awk/"
      function _gr_init(    oldfs, oldrs, olddol0, grcat,
                                   using_fw, using_fpat, n, a, i)
          if (_gr_inited)
          oldfs = FS
          oldrs = RS
          olddol0 = $0
          using_fw = (PROCINFO["FS"] == "FIELDWIDTHS")
          using_fpat = (PROCINFO["FS"] == "FPAT")
          FS = ":"
          RS = "\n"
          grcat = _gr_awklib "grcat"
          while ((grcat | getline) > 0) {
              if ($1 in _gr_byname)
                  _gr_byname[$1] = _gr_byname[$1] "," $4
                  _gr_byname[$1] = $0
              if ($3 in _gr_bygid)
                  _gr_bygid[$3] = _gr_bygid[$3] "," $4
                  _gr_bygid[$3] = $0
              n = split($4, a, "[ \t]*,[ \t]*")
              for (i = 1; i <= n; i++)
                  if (a[i] in _gr_groupsbyuser)
                      _gr_groupsbyuser[a[i]] = _gr_groupsbyuser[a[i]] " " $1
                      _gr_groupsbyuser[a[i]] = $1
              _gr_bycount[++_gr_count] = $0
          _gr_count = 0
          FS = oldfs
          if (using_fw)
          else if (using_fpat)
              FPAT = FPAT
          RS = oldrs
          $0 = olddol0
    The 'BEGIN' rule sets a private variable to the directory where
 'grcat' is stored.  Because it is used to help out an 'awk' library
 routine, we have chosen to put it in '/usr/local/libexec/awk'.  You
 might want it to be in a different directory on your system.
    These routines follow the same general outline as the user database
 routines (⇒Passwd Functions).  The '_gr_inited' variable is used
 to ensure that the database is scanned no more than once.  The
 '_gr_init()' function first saves 'FS', 'RS', and '$0', and then sets
 'FS' and 'RS' to the correct values for scanning the group information.
 It also takes care to note whether 'FIELDWIDTHS' or 'FPAT' is being
 used, and to restore the appropriate field-splitting mechanism.
    The group information is stored in several associative arrays.  The
 arrays are indexed by group name ('_gr_byname'), by group ID number
 ('_gr_bygid'), and by position in the database ('_gr_bycount').  There
 is an additional array indexed by username ('_gr_groupsbyuser'), which
 is a space-separated list of groups to which each user belongs.
    Unlike in the user database, it is possible to have multiple records
 in the database for the same group.  This is common when a group has a
 large number of members.  A pair of such entries might look like the
    For this reason, '_gr_init()' looks to see if a group name or group
 ID number is already seen.  If so, the usernames are simply concatenated
 onto the previous list of users.(1)
    Finally, '_gr_init()' closes the pipeline to 'grcat', restores 'FS'
 (and 'FIELDWIDTHS' or 'FPAT', if necessary), 'RS', and '$0', initializes
 '_gr_count' to zero (it is used later), and makes '_gr_inited' nonzero.
    The 'getgrnam()' function takes a group name as its argument, and if
 that group exists, it is returned.  Otherwise, it relies on the array
 reference to a nonexistent element to create the element with the null
 string as its value:
      function getgrnam(group)
          return _gr_byname[group]
    The 'getgrgid()' function is similar; it takes a numeric group ID and
 looks up the information associated with that group ID:
      function getgrgid(gid)
          return _gr_bygid[gid]
    The 'getgruser()' function does not have a C counterpart.  It takes a
 username and returns the list of groups that have the user as a member:
      function getgruser(user)
          return _gr_groupsbyuser[user]
    The 'getgrent()' function steps through the database one entry at a
 time.  It uses '_gr_count' to track its position in the list:
      function getgrent()
          if (++_gr_count in _gr_bycount)
              return _gr_bycount[_gr_count]
          return ""
    The 'endgrent()' function resets '_gr_count' to zero so that
 'getgrent()' can start over again:
      function endgrent()
          _gr_count = 0
    As with the user database routines, each function calls '_gr_init()'
 to initialize the arrays.  Doing so only incurs the extra overhead of
 running 'grcat' if these functions are used (as opposed to moving the
 body of '_gr_init()' into a 'BEGIN' rule).
    Most of the work is in scanning the database and building the various
 associative arrays.  The functions that the user calls are themselves
 very simple, relying on 'awk''s associative arrays to do work.
    The 'id' program in ⇒Id Program uses these functions.
    ---------- Footnotes ----------
    (1) There is a subtle problem with the code just presented.  Suppose
 that the first time there were no names.  This code adds the names with
 a leading comma.  It also doesn't check that there is a '$4'.
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