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gawk: Reading Files

 4 Reading Input Files
 In the typical 'awk' program, 'awk' reads all input either from the
 standard input (by default, this is the keyboard, but often it is a pipe
 from another command) or from files whose names you specify on the 'awk'
 command line.  If you specify input files, 'awk' reads them in order,
 processing all the data from one before going on to the next.  The name
 of the current input file can be found in the predefined variable
 'FILENAME' (⇒Built-in Variables).
    The input is read in units called "records", and is processed by the
 rules of your program one record at a time.  By default, each record is
 one line.  Each record is automatically split into chunks called
 "fields".  This makes it more convenient for programs to work on the
 parts of a record.
    On rare occasions, you may need to use the 'getline' command.  The
 'getline' command is valuable both because it can do explicit input from
 any number of files, and because the files used with it do not have to
 be named on the 'awk' command line (⇒Getline).


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