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cvs(1)                                                                  cvs(1)



## NAME

       cvs - Concurrent Versions System



## SYNOPSIS

       cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]



## NOTE

       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  docu-
mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS com-
mand or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section  of  this  man-
page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.



## CVS commands

   Guide to CVS commands
This  appendix  describes  the  overall  structure of cvs commands, and
describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere;  for
a  quick  reference to cvs commands, see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS
manual).



## Structure

   Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some  options  that  affect  all  sub-commands  of  cvs.   These  are
described below.

cvs_command

One  of  several  different  sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref-
erence  manual for that command.  There are only two situations where
you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a  list  of  available  com-
mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There  is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and com-
mand_options.  When given as a cvs_option, some options  only  affect
some  of  the commands.  When given as a command_option it may have a
different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc-



## Exit status

   CVS's exit status
cvs can indicate to the calling environment  whether  it  succeeded  or
failed  by  setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit
status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example  in
a  unix  shell  script  the  $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a suc- cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior pro- vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.  ## ~/.cvsrc  Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always spec- ify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out- put of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con- text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com- mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the follow- ing line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6.  ## Global options  The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir Specify legal cvsroot directory. See Password authentication server' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. Overrides the setting of the$TMPDIR  environment  variable  and  any
precompiled  directory.   This  parameter  should  be specified as an
absolute pathname.  (When running client/server, -T affects only  the
local  process;  specifying  -T  for  the client has no effect on the
server and vice versa.)

-d cvs_root_directory

Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the  reposi-
tory.   Overrides  the  setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable. See Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables. For more infor- mation, see Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD
environment variable is set (see node Environment variables' in  the
CVS  manual).   The default is to make working files writable, unless
watches are on (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node Variables' in the CVS manual).

-t

Trace program execution; display messages showing the  steps  of  cvs
activity.   Particularly  useful  with  -n  to  explore the potential
impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make new working files read-write.   Overrides  the  setting  of  the
$CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD is set or -r is given.

-x

Encrypt all communication between the client and  the  server.   Only
has  an  effect  on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only
implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node GSSAPI  authen-
ticated'  in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node Ker-
beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
that  message  traffic  is also authenticated.  Encryption support is
not available by default; it must be enabled using a special  config-
ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

-z gzip-level

Set  the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low com-
pression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0  to  disable  com-
pression (the default).  Only has an effect on the cvs client.



## Common options

   Common command options
This  section  describes  the command_options that are available across
several cvs commands.  These options are always given to the  right  of
cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option
is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  However,  when  a
command  has  one  of  these options you can almost always count on the
same behavior of the option  as  in  other  commands.   (Other  command
options,  which  are listed with the individual commands, may have dif-
ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

The history command is an exception; it supports many options that con-
flict even with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.  date_spec is a
single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
a  source  file;  that  is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs
records the date you specified, so that further updates in  the  same
directory  will  use  the  same  date (for more information on sticky
tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

-D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff,  export,  history,
rdiff,  rtag,  and  update  commands.  (The history command uses this
option in a slightly different way; see node history options' in the
CVS manual).

A  wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.  The most stan-
dard ones are ISO8601 (from the International Standards Organization)
and  the  Internet e-mail standard (specified in RFC822 as amended by
RFC1123).

ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:

1972-09-24
1972-09-24 20:05

There are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs  accepts  many  of
them, but you probably don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

In  addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs also
allows some of the fields to be omitted.  For example:

24 Sep 1972 20:05
24 Sep

The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a spe-
cific timezone is specified.

These two date formats are preferred.  However, cvs currently accepts
a wide variety of other date formats.   They  are  intentionally  not
documented  here  in any detail, and future versions of cvs might not
accept all of them.

One such format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people  who  are
accustomed  to having the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96 is
January 4, not April 1.

Remember to quote the argument to the -D  flag  so  that  your  shell
doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
-D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they nor- mally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See commit options' in the CVS manual, and Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Alter the default processing of keywords. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Your kflag specifica- tion is sticky when you use it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use this option with the checkout or update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag with the file, and con- tinues to use it with future update commands on the same file until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, rdiff, import and update commands. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). This is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See Removing directories' in the CVS man- ual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is on by default. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working direc- tory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth- erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. This is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit, diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update.  ## add  Add files and directories to the repository o Synopsis: add [-k rcs-kflag] [-m message] files... o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: repository, working directory. The add command is used to present new files and directories for addition into the cvs repository. When add is used on a directory, a new directory is created in the repository immediately. When used on a file, only the working directory is updated. Changes to the repos- itory are not made until the commit command is used on the newly added file. The add command also resurrects files that have been previously removed. This can be done before or after the commit command is used to finalize the removal of files. Resurrected files are restored into the working directory at the time the add command is executed.  ## add options  These standard options are supported by add (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status com- mand can be viewed to see the sticky options. For more information on the status command, see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.  ## add examples  Adding a directory$ mkdir doc
$cvs add doc Directory /path/to/repository/doc added to the repository Adding a file$ >TODO
$cvs add TODO cvs add: scheduling file TODO' for addition cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently Undoing a remove command$ rm -f makefile
$cvs remove makefile cvs remove: scheduling makefile' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ cvs add makefile
U makefile
cvs add: makefile, version 1.2, resurrected



   Administration
o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: repository.

o Synonym: rcs

This is the cvs  interface  to  assorted  administrative  facilities.
Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his-
torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
disappear  in  the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
extreme care should be used.

On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
group  can  run cvs admin (except for the cvs admin -k command, which
can be run by anybody).  This group should exist on  the  server,  or
any  system running the non-client/server cvs.  To disallow cvs admin
for all users, create a group with no users in it.  On NT, the cvsad-
min feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.



       Some  of  these  options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
for historical purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
you undo the effect!

-Aoldfile

Might  not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
to the access list of the rcs file.

Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
in  the  comma-separated  list  logins  to the access list of the rcs
file.

-b[rev]

Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu-
late default branches; sticky tags (see node Sticky tags' in the CVS
manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
There  is  one  reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's
version  when  using  vendor  branches  (see  node  Reverting  local
changes'  in  the  CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and
its argument.

-cstring

Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by
current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely
not worry about it.  See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be  no
space between -e and its argument.

-I

Run  interactively,  even  if  the  standard input is not a terminal.
This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
disappear in a future release of cvs.

-i

Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with-
out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com-
mand (see node Adding files' in the CVS manual).

-ksubst

Set  the default keyword substitution to subst.  See Keyword substi-
tution' in the CVS manual.  Giving  an  explicit  -k  option  to  cvs
update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.

-l[rev]

Lock  the  revision  with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock the
latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock  the  latest
revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
its argument.

This can be used in conjunction with the  rcslock.pl  script  in  the
contrib  directory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved
checkouts (where only one user can be  editing  a  given  file  at  a
time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
file in that directory for disclaimers about the  unsupported  nature
of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
strict (which is the default).

-L

Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
file  is  not  exempt  from  locking  for checkin.  For use with cvs,
strict locking must be set; see the discussion under  the  -l  option
above.

-mrev:msg

Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

-Nname[:[rev]]

Act  like  -n,  except override any previous assignment of name.  For
use with magic branches, see Magic branch numbers' in the  CVS  man-
ual.

-nname[:[rev]]

Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs rtag  instead.   Delete  the
symbolic  name  if  both  :  and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an
error message if name is already associated with another number.   If
rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
of a branch number followed by a .  stands  for  the  current  latest
revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam-
ple,  cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revi-
sion of all the RCS files; this contrasts  with  cvs  admin  -nname:$which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from key- word strings in the corresponding working files. -orange Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this command! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify range in one of the following ways: rev1::rev2 Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove. ::rev Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev itself. The branchpoint and rev are left intact. For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact. rev:: Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev. Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted. rev Delete the revision rev. For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4. rev1:rev2 Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead. :rev Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including rev. rev: Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch containing rev. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o. If one specifies the non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be like the :: case. Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol- ically if it is a branch. See Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate. Strange things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in. For this reason, this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus change instead (see node Merging two revisions' in the CVS manual). -q Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. -sstate[:rev] Useful with cvs. Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is acceptable for state. A useful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created. The state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS manual), and in the$Log$and$State$key- words (see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual). Note that cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node Adding and removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s. -t[file] Useful with cvs. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with -. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -t and its argument. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I. -t-string Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between -t and its argument. -U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -u[rev] See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs. Unlock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notifica- tion (see node Getting Notified' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -u and its argument. -Vn In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. -xsuffixes In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify- ing the names of the rcs files. However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never done anything useful.  ## annotate  What revision modified each line of a file? o Synopsis: annotate [options] files... o Requires: repository. o Synonym: blame o Changes: nothing. For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line.  ## annotate options  These standard options are supported by annotate (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -l Local directory only, no recursion. -R Process directories recursively. -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. -F Annotate binary files. -r revision Annotate file as of specified revision/tag. -D date Annotate file as of specified date.  ## annotate example  For example:$ cvs annotate ssfile
Annotations for ssfile
***************
1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line  1  line
was  checked  in  by  mary on March 27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a
line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile  line  1  line.   This
report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff' in the CVS
manual).

The  options  to  cvs  annotate are listed in Invoking CVS' in the CVS
manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to  annotate.
The  options are described in more detail there and in Common options'
in the CVS manual.



## checkout

   Check out sources for editing
o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: working directory.

o Synonyms: co, get

Create or update a working directory containing copies of the  source
files  specified  by modules.  You must execute checkout before using
most of the other cvs commands, since most of them  operate  on  your
working directory.

The  modules  are either symbolic names for some collection of source
directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repos-
itory.   The  symbolic  names  are  defined in the modules file.  See
modules' in the CVS manual.

Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create
directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.  You
can then edit these source files at any time (regardless  of  whether
other  software  developers  are  editing  their  own  copies  of the
sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the
source  repository;  or commit your work as a permanent change to the
source repository.

Note that checkout is used  to  create  directories.   The  top-level
directory  created is always added to the directory where checkout is
invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified  module.   In
the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif-
ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
that  checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it
is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify  the  -Q
global option).

The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r
option to cvs (see node Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci-
fied,  the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node Envi-
ronment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is  in  effect  for
that file (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
prior checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying  the
-d  option  to  the  update command in the sense that new directories
that have been created in the repository will  appear  in  your  work
area.   However,  checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a
directory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must  be  run  from
the  top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so
before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
to change your directory to the top level directory.

For  the  output  produced  by the checkout command, see node update
output' in the CVS manual.



## checkout options

       These standard options are supported  by  checkout  (see  node  Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
sticky, and implies -P.  See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more
information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only  useful  with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no matching revi-
sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-k kflag

Process  keywords  according to kflag.  See Keyword substitution' in
the CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of  this  file
in  this  working directory will use the same kflag.  The status com-
mand can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See Invoking CVS'  in
the CVS manual for more information on the status command.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
the modules file; see node modules' in the CVS manual).

-P

Prune empty directories.  See Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Use  revision  tag.   This  option  is  sticky,  and implies -P.  See
Sticky tags' in the CVS  manual,  for  more  information  on  sticky
tags/dates.

In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
checkout:

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not  reset  sticky
-k  options  on  modified files.  See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual

-c

Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre-
ating  or  modifying  any files or directories in your working direc-
tory.

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
the  module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to using
mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout  command  without  the  -d
flag.

There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient when
checking out a single item to have the output appear in  a  directory
that  doesn't  contain  empty intermediate directories.  In this case
only, cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty  direc-
tories.

For  example,  given  a  module foo that contains the file bar.c, the
command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and  place  bar.c
inside.   Similarly,  given  a  module bar which has subdirectory baz
wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs  co  -d  dir  bar/baz
will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

Using  the  -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the same module
definitions above, cvs co -N  -d  dir  foo  will  create  directories
dir/foo  and  place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will
create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

-j tag

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
the  first  -j  option  to  the  revision specified with the second j
option, into the working directory.

With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision  which
the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
-j option.

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by  adding
a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

-N

Only  useful  together  with  -d dir.  With this option, cvs will not
shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.

-s

Like  -c,  but  include the status of all modules, and sort it by the
status string.  See modules' in the CVS manual, for info  about  the
-s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module sta-
tus.



## checkout examples

       Get a copy of the module tc:

$cvs checkout tc Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:$ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc



## commit

   Check files into the repository
o Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F  file]  [-r  revision]
[files...]

o Requires: working directory, repository.

o Changes: repository.

o Synonym: ci

Use  commit  when  you  want to incorporate changes from your working
source files into the source repository.

If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files  in
your  working  current  directory are examined.  commit is careful to
change in the repository  only  those  files  that  you  have  really
changed.   By  default  (or if you explicitly specify the -R option),
files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they  have
changed;  you  can  use  the -l option to limit commit to the current
directory only.

commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the  cur-
rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
without committing, if any of the specified files must be  made  cur-
rent first with update (see node update' in the CVS manual).  commit
does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that  for
you to do when the time is right.

When  all  is  well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log
message that will be written to one or  more  logging  programs  (see
node  modules'  in the CVS manual, and see node loginfo' in the CVS
manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository.   This  log
message  can be retrieved with the log command; see node log' in the
CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command line with
the  -m  message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use
the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log
message.



## commit options

       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  commit  (see node Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r revision

Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a  revision
on  the  main  trunk that is higher than any existing revision number
(see node Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot  com-
mit to a specific revision on a branch.

commit also supports these options:

-F file

Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.

-f

Note  that  this  is  not  the  standard behavior of the -f option as
defined in Common options' in the CVS manual.

Force cvs to commit a new revision  even  if  you  haven't  made  any
changes  to  the  file.  If the current revision of file is 1.7, then
the following two commands are equivalent:

$cvs commit -f file$ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
to  commit  a  new  revision for all files in all subdirectories, you
must use -f -R.

-m message

Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.



## commit examples

   Committing to a branch
You can commit to a branch revision (one that has  an  even  number  of
dots)  with  the  -r  option.   To create a branch revision, use the -b
option of the rtag or tag commands (see node Branching and merging' in
the  CVS  manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be used to base
your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com-
mit  changes  made  within  these working sources will be automatically
added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing  main-line  develop-
ment  in any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2
version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is  already  under
development, you might do:

$cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cd product_module [[ hack away ]]$ cvs commit

This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

Creating the branch after editing
Say  you  have  been  working  on some extremely experimental software,
based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth-
ers  in  your  group  would like to work on this software with you, but
without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your  change
to  a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and
utilize the full benefit of  cvs  conflict  resolution.   The  scenario
might look like:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs update -r EXPR1
$cvs commit The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files. Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update command. The commit will automatically commit to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky. You could also do like this: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs commit -r EXPR1 but then, only those files that were changed by you will have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag. If you hack away, and commit without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk. To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do$ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module



## diff

   Show differences between revisions
o Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k  kflag]  [format_options]  [[-r  rev1  |  -D
date1] [-r rev2 |  -D date2]] [files...]

o Requires: working directory, repository.

o Changes: nothing.

The  diff  command  is  used to compare different revisions of files.
The default action is to compare your working files  with  the  revi-
sions  they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

If any file names are given, only those files are compared.   If  any
directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

The  exit  status  for diff is different than for other cvs commands;
for details see node Exit status' in the CVS manual.



## diff options

       These standard options are supported by diff (see node Common options'
in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
affects the comparison.

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword  substitution'  in
the CVS manual.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Compare  with  revision  tag.   Zero,  one  or  two -r options can be
present.  With no -r option, the working file will be  compared  with
the  revision  it  was  based on.  With one -r, that revision will be
compared to your current working file.  With two -r options those two
revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the
outcome in any way).

One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described
above.

The  following  options  specify the format of the output.  They have
the same meaning as in GNU diff.  Most options  have  two  equivalent
names,  one  of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other
of which is a long name preceded by --.

-lines

Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec-
ify  an  output  format by itself; it has no effect unless it is com-
bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.  For proper operation,
patch typically needs at least two lines of context.

-a

Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
do not seem to be text.

-b

Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

-B

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--binary

Read and write data in binary mode.

--brief

Report  only whether the files differ, not the details of the differ-
ences.

-c

Use the context output format.

-C lines

--context[=lines]

Use the context output format, showing lines (an  integer)  lines  of
context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
typically needs at least two lines of context.

--changed-group-format=format

Use format to output a line group  containing  differing  lines  from
both  files  in if-then-else format.  See Line group formats' in the
CVS manual.

-d

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.   This
makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-e

--ed

Make output that is a valid ed script.

--expand-tabs

Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
tabs in the input files.

-f

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
the order they appear in the file.

-F regexp

In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--forward-ed

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
the order they appear in the file.

-H

Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
scattered small changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

Do not discard the last lines lines of  the  common  prefix  and  the
first lines lines of the common suffix.

-i

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv-
alent.

-I regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

Make merged if-then-else output using name.

--ignore-all-space

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-blank-lines

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--ignore-case

Ignore changes in case; consider upper-  and  lower-case  to  be  the
same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

Ignore  trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

--initial-tab

Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in  normal
or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
look normal.

-L label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified

--label=label

Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified

--left-column

Print only the left column of two common lines in side by  side  for-
mat.

--line-format=format

Use  format  to  output  all input lines in if-then-else format.  See
Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--minimal

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.   This
makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-n

Output  RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
the number of lines affected.

-N

--new-file

In directory comparison, if a file is found in  only  one  directory,
treat it as present but empty in the other directory.

--new-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file
in if-then-else format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS  manual.

--new-line-format=format

Use  format  to  output a line taken from just the second file in if-
then-else format.  See Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first  file
in  if-then-else format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-line-format=format

Use format to output a line taken from just the  first  file  in  if-
then-else format.  See Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

--rcs

Output  RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
the number of lines affected.

--report-identical-files

-s

Report when two files are the same.

--show-c-function

Show which C function each change is in.

--show-function-line=regexp

In context and unified format, for each  hunk  of  differences,  show
some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--side-by-side

Use the side by side output format.

--speed-large-files

Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
scattered small changes.

--suppress-common-lines

Do not print common lines in side by side format.

-t

Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the  alignment  of
tabs in the input files.

-T

Output  a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal
or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line  to
look normal.

--text

Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
do not appear to be text.

-u

Use the unified output format.

--unchanged-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
if-then-else  format.   see node Line group formats' in the CVS man-
ual.

--unchanged-line-format=format

Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for-
mat.  see node Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-U lines

--unified[=lines]

Use  the  unified  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of
context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
typically needs at least two lines of context.

-w

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

-W columns

--width=columns

Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

-y

Use the side by side output format.



## Line group formats

       Line  group  formats let you specify formats suitable for many applica-
tions that allow if-then-else input,  including  programming  languages
and  text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies the out-
put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

For example, the following command compares the TeX  file  myfile  with
the  original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in
which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and  new
regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

cvs diff \
--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \
--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
myfile

The  following  command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a
little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group  for-
mats.

cvs diff \
--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \
--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
--unchanged-group-format='%=' \
--changed-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
myfile

Here  is  a  more  advanced  example, which outputs a diff listing with
headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style.

cvs diff \
--unchanged-group-format='' \
--old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
%<' \
--new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
%>' \
--changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
%<-------- to:
%>' \
myfile

To  specify  a  line group format, use one of the options listed below.
You can specify up to four line group formats, one  for  each  kind  of
line  group.   You  should  quote format, because it typically contains
shell metacharacters.

--old-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing  only  lines  from  the  first
file.   The default old group format is the same as the changed group
format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs  the
line group as-is.

--new-group-format=format

These  line  groups  are  hunks containing only lines from the second
file.  The default new group format is same as the changed group for-
mat  if  it  is  specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
line group as-is.

--changed-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing lines from  both  files.   The
default  changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new
group formats.

--unchanged-group-format=format

These line groups contain lines common to both  files.   The  default
unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

In a line group format,  ordinary  characters  represent  themselves;
conversion  specifications start with % and have one of the following
forms.

%<

stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new-
line.   Each  line is formatted according to the old line format (see
node Line formats' in the CVS manual).

%>

stands for the lines from the second  file,  including  the  trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.

%=

stands  for  the  lines  common to both files, including the trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for-
mat.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon,  even
inside  the  then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would
normally terminate.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
acter.

Fn

where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the fol-
lowing letters, stands for n's value formatted with F.

e

The  line number of the line just before the group in the old file.

f

The line number of the first line in the group  in  the  old  file;
equals e + 1.

l

The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

m

The  line  number of the line just after the group in the old file;
equals l + 1.

n

The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

E, F, L, M, N

Likewise, for lines in the new file.

The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec-
ifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case  hexa-
decimal output respectively.  After the % the following options can
appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification;  an  integer
specifying  the  minimum  field  width; and a period followed by an
optional integer specifying the  minimum  number  of  digits.   For
example,  %5dN  prints  the  number  of new lines in the group in a
field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".

(A=B?T:E)

If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  con-
stant  or  a single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec is
equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it  is  equivalent
to E.

For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1  line
if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.



## Line formats

       Line  formats  control how each line taken from an input file is output
as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

For example, the following  command  outputs  text  with  a  one-column
change  indicator  to the left of the text.  The first column of output
is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a  space  for  unchanged
lines.   The  formats  contain  newline  characters  where newlines are
desired on output.

cvs diff \
--old-line-format='-%l
' \
--new-line-format='|%l
' \
--unchanged-line-format=' %l
' \
myfile

To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.

--old-line-format=format

formats lines just from the first file.

--new-line-format=format

formats lines just from the second file.

--unchanged-line-format=format

formats lines common to both files.

--line-format=format

formats  all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simul-
taneously.

In a line format, ordinary characters represent  themselves;  conver-
sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.

%l

stands for the contents of the line, not counting its  trailing  new-
line (if any).  This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

%L

stands  for  the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
(if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its  incom-
pleteness.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
acter.

Fn

where F is a printf conversion specification,  stands  for  the  line
number  formatted  with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number
using the printf format "%.5d".  see node Line group formats' in the
CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.

The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

If  the  input  contains tab characters and it is important that they
line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a  line  format
is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char-
acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify  many
different  formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
similar to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to  get
fine control over diff's output.

cvs diff \
--old-line-format='< %l
' \
--new-line-format='> %l
' \
--old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
%<' \
--new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%>' \
--changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%<--
%>' \
--unchanged-group-format='' \
myfile



## diff examples

       The  following  line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14
and 1.19 of backend.c.  Due to the -kk flag  no  keywords  are  substi-
tuted,  so  differences  that  only  depend on keyword substitution are
ignored.

$cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0. To see what has happened on that branch, the fol- lowing can be used:$ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

A command like this can be used to produce a context diff  between  two
releases:

$cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry. All local modifications that have not yet been committed will be printed.$ cvs diff -u | less



## export

   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d  dir]  mod-
ule...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: current directory.

This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
the source for module without  the  cvs  administrative  directories.
For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-
site.  This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with  -D
or  -r),  so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to
others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

One often would like to use -kv with cvs  export.   This  causes  any
keywords  to  be expanded such that an import done at some other site
will not lose the keyword revision information.  But  be  aware  that
doesn't  handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also be
aware that after having used -kv, one can no  longer  use  the  ident
command  (which  is  part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks
for keyword strings.  If you want to be able to use  ident  you  must
not use -kv.



## export options

       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  export  (see node Common
options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
(instead of ignoring the file).

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do not run any checkout program.

-R

Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r tag

Use revision tag.

In  addition,  these options (that are common to checkout and export)
are also supported:

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
the  module  name.  See checkout options' in the CVS manual for com-
plete details on how cvs handles this flag.

-k subst

Set keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes' in the  CVS
manual).

-N

Only  useful together with -d dir.  See checkout options' in the CVS
manual for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.



## history

   Show status of files and users
o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history o Changes: nothing. cvs can keep a history file that tracks each use of the checkout, commit, rtag, update, and release commands. You can use history to display this information in various formats. Logging must be enabled by creating the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his-
tory.

history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal
use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual).



## history options

       Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of  report
is generated:

-c

Report  on  each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
was modified).

-e

Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with  all
record types.  Of course, -e will also include record types which are
added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a  script  which
can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.

-m module

Report  on  a  particular  module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more
than once on the command line.)

-o

Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.

-T

Report on all tags.

-x type

Extract a particular set of record types type from the  cvs  history.
The  types  are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
combination.

Certain commands have a single record type:

F

release

O

checkout

E

export

T

rtag

One of five record types may result from an update:

C

A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring  man-
ual merging).

G

A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

U

A working file was copied from the repository.

P

A working file was patched to match the repository.

W

The  working  copy  of a file was deleted during update (because it
was gone from the repository).

One of three record types results from commit:

A

A file was added for the first time.

M

A file was modified.

R

A file was removed.

The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without
requiring option arguments:

-a

Show  data  for  all  users (the default is to show data only for the
user executing history).

-l

Show last modification only.

-w

Show only the records for modifications done from  the  same  working
directory where history is executing.

The  options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on an
argument:

-b str

Show data back to a record containing  the  string  str   in   either
the module name, the file name, or the repository path.

-D date

Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use
of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.

-f file

Show data for a particular file (you can specify several  -f  options
on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
on the command line.

-n module

Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options
on the same command line).

-p repository

Show  data  for a particular source repository  (you can specify sev-
eral -p options on the same command line).

-r rev

Show records referring to revisions since the revision or  tag  named
rev  appears  in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for
the revision or tag.

-t tag

Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.   This
differs  from  the  -r  flag  above in that it reads only the history
file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.

-u name

Show records for user name.

-z timezone

Show times in the selected records  using  the  specified  time  zone



## import

   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

o Changes: repository.

Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an out-
side source (e.g., a  source  vendor)  into  your  source  repository
directory.   You  can use this command both for initial creation of a
repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the  outside
source.  See Tracking sources' in the CVS manual for a discussion on
this subject.

The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc-
tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
did not exist, import creates it.

When you use import for updates to source that has been  modified  in
your  source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of
any files that conflict in  the  two  branches  of  development;  use
checkout  -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to
do.

If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsignore' in  the
CVS  manual),  it  does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the
filename (see node import output' in the CVS manual for  a  complete
description of the output).

If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be performed on the file/directory before being imported. See Wrappers' in the CVS manual. The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1. Updates are leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on. At least three arguments are required. repository is needed to iden- tify the collection of source. vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1). You must also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each time you execute import. The releasetag should be new, not previ- ously existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release, Note that import does not change the directory in which you invoke it. In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work- ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first and then check them out into a different directory (see node Getting the source' in the CVS manual).  ## import options  This standard option is supported by import (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description): -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. There are the following additional special options. -b branch See Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual. -d Use each file's modification time as the time of import rather than the current time. -k subst Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired. This setting will apply to all files created during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository. See Substitution modes' in the CVS manual for a list of valid -k settings. -I name Specify file names that should be ignored during import. You can use this option repeatedly. To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I !'. name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvsignore file. See cvsignore' in the CVS manual. -W spec Specify file names that should be filtered during import. You can use this option repeatedly. spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node Wrappers' in the CVS manual.  ## import output  import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file: U file The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary). N file The file is a new file which has been added to the repository. C file The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi- fied; you will have to merge the changes. I file The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual). L file The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links. Peo- ple periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem to be apparent. (Various options in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node modules' in the CVS manual.)  ## import examples  See Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and From files' in the CVS manual.  ## log  Print out log information for files o Synopsis: log [options] [files...] o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: nothing. Display log information for files. log used to call the rcs utility rlog. Although this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands. The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things. For each revision, the revision number, the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log message are printed. All times are displayed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (Other parts of cvs print times in the local timezone). log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual).  ## log options  By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-b, -d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date for- mats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -n Print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your .cvsrc file has a log -N entry as a way to get a full list of all of the tags. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain- ing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See admin options' in the CVS manual for more information. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r.  ## log examples  Contributed examples are gratefully accepted.  ## rdiff  'patch' format diffs between releases o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules... o Requires: repository. o Changes: nothing. o Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few cvs com- mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combina- tion of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revi- sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories.  ## rdiff options  These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -l Local; don't descend subdirectories. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag Use revision tag. In addition to the above, these options are available: -c Use the context diff format. This is the default format. -s Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes information about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. -t A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. -u Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old ver- sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u. -V vn Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5). Note that this option is no longer accepted. cvs will always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.  ## rdiff examples  Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler. You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:$ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
> Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net

Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called  R_1_3fix
for  bug  fixes.   R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made
some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
on the branch.  This command can be used:

$cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2  ## release  Indicate that a Module is no longer in use o release [-d] directories... o Requires: Working directory. o Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout. Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node history file' in the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use cvs release to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme- diately above a cvs working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.  ## release options  The release command supports one command option: -d Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working direc- tory. WARNING: The release command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any direc- tory created inside checked-out sources, and not added to the reposi- tory (using the add command; see node Adding files' in the CVS man- ual) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty!  ## release output  Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. U file P file There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing). A file The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. R file The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. See commit' in the CVS manual. M file The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. ? file file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to any- thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost.  ## release examples  Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.$ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the
# sources when you issue cvs release.
$cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y$



## remove

   Remove files from active use
o Synopsis: remove [-flR] [files...]

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: working directory.

The  remove command is used to remove unwanted files from active use.
The user normally deletes the files from the working directory  prior
to  invocation  of the remove command.  Only the working directory is
updated.  Changes to the repository are not  made  until  the  commit
command is run.

The  remove  command  does not delete files from from the repository.
cvs keeps all historical data in the repository so that it is  possi-
ble  to  reconstruct  previous  states of the projects under revision
control.

To undo cvs  remove  or  to  resurrect  files  that  were  previously
removed, see node add' in the CVS manual.



## remove options

       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  remove  (see node Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.  See Recursive  behav-
ior' in the CVS manual.

-R

Process directories recursively.  See Recursive behavior' in the CVS
manual.

In addition, these options are also supported:

-f

Note that this is not the standard  behavior  of  the  -f  option  as
defined in Common options' in the CVS manual.

Delete files before removing them.

Entire  directory  hierarchies  are easily removed using -f, but take
note that it is not as easy to resurrect directory hierarchies as  it
is to remove them.



## remove examples

   Removing a file
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: file remove.me' still in working directory cvs remove: 1 file exists; remove it first$ rm -f remove.me
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: scheduling remove.me' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ ls remove.it
remove.it
$cvs remove -f remove.it cvs remove: scheduling remove.it' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently Removing entire directories$ tree -d a
a
|-- CVS
-- b
-- CVS

3 directories
\$ cvs remove -f a
cvs remove: Removing a
cvs remove: Removing a/b
cvs remove: scheduling a/b/c' for removal
cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently



## update

   Bring work tree in sync with repository
o update  [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag|-D
date] [-W spec] files...

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: working directory.

After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source  from
the  common  repository,  other developers will continue changing the
central source.  From time to time, when it  is  convenient  in  your
development  process, you can use the update command from within your
working directory to reconcile your work with any  revisions  applied
to the source repository since your last checkout or update.



## update options

       These  standard  options  are  available  with update (see node Common
options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later  than  date.   This  option  is
sticky, and implies -P.  See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more
information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no  matching  revi-
sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword  substitution'  in
the  CVS  manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of this file
in this working directory will use the same kflag.  The  status  com-
mand  can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See Invoking CVS' in
the CVS manual for more information on the status command.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.  See Recursive  behav-
ior' in the CVS manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update directories recursively (default).  See  Recursive  behavior'
in the CVS manual.

-r rev

Retrieve  revision/tag  rev.   This option is sticky, and implies -P.
See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information  on  sticky
tags/dates.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset  any  sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not reset sticky
-k options on modified files.  See Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual

-C

Overwrite  locally  modified files with clean copies from the reposi-
tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're  miss-
ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc-
tories and files that were already enrolled in  your  working  direc-
tory.

This  is  useful  for  updating  directories that were created in the
repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
effect.   If  you  deliberately  avoided  certain  directories in the
repository when you created your working  directory  (either  through
use  of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and directo-
ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
ate those directories, which may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore  files whose names match name (in your working directory) dur-
ing the update.  You can specify -I more than  once  on  the  command
line  to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring
any files at all.  See cvsignore' in the CVS manual for  other  ways
to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify  file  names  that should be filtered during update.  You can
use this option repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
in the .cvswrappers file.  See Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with  the  second  j
option, into the working directory.

With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
-j option.

Note  that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname
to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
removed  on  the  branch.  See Merging adds and removals' in the CVS

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by  adding
a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



## update output

       update  and  checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a
line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status  of
the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
is done for any file that exists in the repository but  not  in  your
working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not
the most recent versions available in the repository.

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an  entire  file.
This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
be added to the source repository when you run commit  on  the  file.
This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

R file

The  file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, and
will be removed from the source repository when you run commit on the
file.  This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
there  were  no  modifications to the same file in the repository, so
that your file remains as you last saw it; or  there  were  modifica-
tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs will print some messages if it merges your  work,  and  a  backup
copy  of  your working file (as it looked before you ran update) will
be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your  changes  to  file
with  changes  from  the  source  repository.  file (the copy in your
working directory) is now the result of attempting to merge  the  two
revisions;  an  unmodified  copy of your file is also in your working
directory, with the name .#file.revision where revision is the  revi-
sion  that  your modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as
described in Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.  (Note that  some
systems automatically purge files that begin with .# if they have not
been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy  of  your
original  file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)  Under vms, the
file name starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any-
thing  in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,  and  see  node
cvsignore' in the CVS manual).



## AUTHORS

       Dick Grune
Original  author  of  the  cvs  shell  script  version posted to
comp.sources.unix in the  volume6  release  of  December,  1986.
Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder  and  designer  of  the cvs program itself in April, 1989,
based on the original work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
support  and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor
of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.



       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
it with the info CVS command or it may be available as cvs.pdf  (Porta-
ble   Document   Format),  cvs.ps  (PostScript),  cvs.texinfo  (Texinfo
source), or cvs.html.

For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to
CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

http://cvs.nongnu.org

ci(1),  co(1),  cvs(5),  cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1), rcs(1),
rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

cvs(1)


cvs 1.11.23 - Generated Sun Jun 22 10:08:38 CDT 2008
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