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javac(1)                                                              javac(1)




NAME

       javac - Java compiler


SYNOPSIS

       javac [ options ] [ sourcefiles ] [ @argfiles ]


PARAMETERS

       Arguments may be in any order.

       options        Command line options.

       sourcefiles    One  or  more  source  files  to  be  compiled  (such as
                      MyClass.java).

       @argfiles      One or more  files  that  list  source  files.   The  -J
                      options are not allowed in these files.


DESCRIPTION

       The  javac  tool  reads class and interface definitions, written in the
       Java programming language, and compiles them into bytecode class files.

       There are two ways to pass source code file names to javac:

       o For a small number of source files, simply list the file names on the
         command line.

       o For a large number of source files, list the file names  in  a  file,
         separated  by  blanks  or line breaks. Then use the list file name on
         the javac command line, preceded by an @ character.

       Source code file names must have .java suffixes, class file names  must
       have  .class  suffixes,  and both source and class files must have root
       names that identify the class.  For example,  a  class  called  MyClass
       would be written in a source file called MyClass.java and compiled into
       a bytecode class file called MyClass.class.

       Inner class definitions produce additional class  files.   These  class
       files  have  names  combining  the inner and outer class names, such as
       MyClass$MyInnerClass.class.

       You should arrange source files in a directory tree that reflects their
       package  tree.   For  example,  if  you  keep  all your source files in
       /workspace, the source code for com.mysoft.mypack.MyClass should be  in
       /workspace/com/mysoft/mypack/MyClass.java.

       By  default, the compiler puts each class file in the same directory as
       its source file.  You can specify a separate destination directory with
       -d (see OPTIONS, below).

   Searching for Types
       When  compiling  a  source  file,  the compiler often needs information
       about a type whose definition did not appear in the source files  given
       on  the  command  line.   The compiler needs type information for every
       class or interface used, extended, or implemented in the  source  file.
       This  includes  classes  and interfaces not explicitly mentioned in the
       source file but which provide information through inheritance.

       For example, when you subclass java.applet.Applet, you are  also  using
       Applet's    ancestor   classes:   java.awt.Panel,   java.awt.Container,
       java.awt.Component, and java.awt.Object.

       When the compiler needs type information, it looks for a source file or
       class  file which defines the type.  The compiler searches first in the
       bootstrap and extension classes, then in the user class path (which  by
       default  is  the current directory).  The user class path is defined by
       setting the CLASSPATH environment variable or by using  the  -classpath
       command line option.  (For details, see Setting the Class Path.)

       If  you use the -sourcepath option, the compiler searches the indicated
       path for source files; otherwise the compiler searches the  user  class
       path  both for class files and source files.  You can specify different
       bootstrap or extension classes with  the  -bootclasspath  and  -extdirs
       options; see Cross-Compilation Options below.

       A  successful  type  search may produce a class file, a source file, or
       both.  Here is how javac handles each situation:

       o Search produces a class file but no source file: javac uses the class
         file.

       o Search  produces  a source file but no class file: javac compiles the
         source file and uses the resulting class file.

       o Search produces both a source file and a class file: javac determines
         whether  the  class file is out of date.  If the class file is out of
         date, javac recompiles the source file and  uses  the  updated  class
         file.  Otherwise, javac just uses the class file.

         By  default,  javac  considers a class file out of date only if it is
         older than the source file.

       Note: javac can silently compile source files not mentioned on the com-
       mand line.  Use the -verbose option to trace automatic compilation.


OPTIONS

       The  compiler  has  a set of standard options that are supported on the
       current  development  environment  and  will  be  supported  in  future
       releases.   An  additional  set of non-standard options are specific to
       the current virtual machine implementation and are subject to change in
       the future.  Non-standard options begin with -X.

   Standard Options
       -classpath classpath
              Sets  the user class path, overriding the user class path in the
              CLASSPATH environment variable.  If neither CLASSPATH or -class-
              path  is  specified, the user class path consists of the current
              directory.  See Setting the Class Path for more details.

              If the -sourcepath option is not specified, the user class  path
              is searched for both source files and class files.

       -Djava.ext.dirs=directories
              Override the location of installed extensions.

       -Djava.endorsed.dirs=directories
              Override the location of endorsed standards path.

       -d directory
              Sets the destination directory for class files.  The destination
              directory must already exist; javac will not create the destina-
              tion directory.  If a class is part of a package, javac puts the
              class file in a subdirectory reflecting the package name, creat-
              ing  directories  as  needed.   For  example,  if you specify -d
              /home/myclasses and the class is  called  com.mypackage.MyClass,
              then   the  class  file  is  called  /home/myclasses/com/mypack-
              age/MyClass.class.

              If -d is not specified, javac puts the class file  in  the  same
              directory as the source file.

              Note:  The  directory specified by -d is not automatically added
              to your user class path.

       -deprecation
              Shows a description of each use or override of a deprecated mem-
              ber  or  class.   Without -deprecation, javac shows the names of
              source files that use or override deprecated members or classes.
              -deprecation is shorthand for -Xlint:deprecation.

       -encoding encoding
              Sets    the    source    file    encoding    name,    such    as
              EUCJIS/SJIS/ISO8859-1/UTF8.  If -encoding is not specified,  the
              platform default converter is used.

       -g     Generates  all debugging information, including local variables.
              By default, only line number and source file information is gen-
              erated.

       -g:none
              Does not generate any debugging information.

       -g:keyword-list
              Generates only some kinds of debugging information, specified by
              a comma separated list of keywords. Valid keywords are:

              source    Source file debugging information

              lines     Line number debugging information

              vars      Local variable debugging information

       -help  Prints a synopsis of standard options.

       -nowarn
              Disables  warning  messages.  This  has  the  same  meaning   as
              -Xlint:none.

       -source release
              Enables support for compiling source code containing assertions.
              The following values for release are allowed:

                 1.5  The compiler accepts code containing generics and  other
                      language  features  introduced  in JDK 1.5. The compiler
                      defaults to the 1.5 behavior if the -source flag is  not
                      used.

                 5    Synonym for 1.5

                 1.4  The  compiler  accepts code containing assertions, which
                      were introduced in JDK 1.4.

                 1.3  The compiler does not support assertions,  generics,  or
                      other language features introduced after JDK 1.3.

       -sourcepath sourcepath
              Specify  the  source  code path to search for class or interface
              definitions.  As with the user class path, source  path  entries
              are  separated  by  colons  (:)  and can be directories, JAR ar-
              chives, or ZIP archives.  If packages are used, the  local  path
              name  within  the  directory or archive must reflect the package
              name.

              Note: Classes found through the classpath are subject  to  auto-
              matic recompilation if their sources are found.

       -verbose
              Verbose  output.   This  includes  information  about each class
              loaded and each source file compiled.

       -X     Display information about non-standard options and exit.

   Cross-Compilation Options
       By default, classes are compiled against the  bootstrap  and  extension
       classes  of  the  JDK  that javac shipped with. But javac also supports
       cross-compiling, where classes are compiled  against  a  bootstrap  and
       extension  classes  of a different Java platform implementation.  It is
       important to use -bootclasspath and -extdirs when cross-compiling;  see
       Cross-Compilation Example below.

       -target version
              Generates  class  files that will work on VMs with the specified
              version.  The default is to generate class files to be  compati-
              ble  with  1.2  VMs,  with  one  exception. When the -source 1.4
              option is used, the default target is 1.4.   The  versions  sup-
              ported by javac are:

              1.1    Ensures  that  generated  class  files will be compatible
                     with 1.1 and later.  VMs.

              1.2    Generates class files that will run on 1.2 and later VMs,
                     but will not run on 1.1 VMs.

              1.3    Generates  class files that run on VMs in the Java 2 SDK,
                     v1.3 and later, but will not run on 1.1 or 1.2 VMs.

              1.4    Generates class files that will run on VMs in JDK 1.4 and
                     later, but will not run on 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 VMs.

              1.5    Generate  class  files  that are compatible only with JDK
                     1.5 VMs.

              5      Synonym for 1.5

       -bootclasspath bootclasspath
              Cross-compiles against the specified set of  boot  classes.   As
              with  the user class path, boot class path entries are separated
              by colons (:) and can be directories, JAR archives, or  ZIP  ar-
              chives.

       -cldc1.0
              Use  to compile CLDC programs. The compiler generates stack maps
              making the use of the preverifier unnecessary.

       -extdirs directories
              Cross-compiles  against  the  specified  extension  directories.
              directories are a colon-separated list of directories.  Each JAR
              archive in the  specified  directories  is  searched  for  class
              files.

   Non-Standard Options
       -Xbootclasspath/p:path
              Prepend to the bootstrap class path.

       --Xbootclasspath/a:path
              Append to the bootstrap class path.

       -Xbootclasspath/:path
              Override location of bootstrap class files.

       -Xlint Enable  all recommended warnings. In this release, all available
              warnings are recommended.

       -Xlint:none
              Disable all warnings not mandated by the Java Language  Specifi-
              cation.

       -Xlint:-xxx
              Disable  warning xxx, where xxx is one of the warning names sup-
              ported for -Xlint:xxx, below.

       -Xlint:unchecked
              Give more detail for unchecked conversion warnings that are man-
              dated by the Java Language Specification.

       -Xlint:path
              Warn  about nonexistent path (classpath, sourcepath, etc) direc-
              tories.

       -Xlint:serial
              Warn about missing serialVersionUID definitions on  serializable
              classes.

       -Xlint:finally
              Warn about finally clauses that cannot complete normally.

       -Xlint:fallthrough
              Check switch blocks for fall-through cases and provide a warning
              message for any that are found. Fall-through cases are cases  in
              a  switch  block,  other  than the last case in the block, whose
              code does not include a break statement, allowing code execution
              to  "fall through" from that case to the next case. For example,
              the code following the case 1 label in this  switch  block  does
              not contain a break statement:

              switch (x) {
              case 1:
                      System.out.println("1");
                      //  No  break;  statement here.
              case 2:
                      System.out.println("2");
              }

       If  the -Xlint:fallthrough flag were used when compiling this code, the
       compiler would emit a warning about "possible fall-through into  case,"
       along with the line number of the case in question.

       -Xmaxerrors number
              Set the maximum number of errors to print.

       -Xmaxwarns number
              Set the maximum number of warnings to print.

       -Xstdout filename
              Send  compiler messages to the named file.  By default, compiler
              messages go to System.err.


THE -J OPTION

       -Joption
              Pass option to the java launcher called by javac.  For  example,
              -J-Xms48m  sets  the startup memory to 48 megabytes. Although it
              does not begin with -X, it is not a `standard option' of  javac.
              It is a common convention for -J to pass options to the underly-
              ing VM executing applications written in Java.

       Note: CLASSPATH, -classpath, -bootclasspath, and -extdirs do not  spec-
       ify  the classes used to run javac. Fiddling with the implementation of
       the compiler in this way is usually pointless and always risky. If  you
       do  need  to  do this, use the -J option to pass through options to the
       underlying java launcher.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENT FILES

       To shorten or simplify the javac command line, you can specify  one  or
       more files that themselves contain arguments to the javac command. This
       enables you to create javac commands of any  length  on  any  operating
       system.

       An  argument file can include javac options and source filenames in any
       combination.  The arguments within a file  can  be  space-separated  or
       newline-separated.   Filenames  within an argument file are relative to
       the current directory, not the location of the  argument  file.   Wild-
       cards  (*)  are  not  allowed  in  these  lists (such as for specifying
       *.java).  Use of the @ character to recursively interpret files is  not
       supported.

       When  executing  javac, pass in the path and name of each argument file
       with the @ leading character.  When javac encounters an argument begin-
       ning  with  the  character @, it expands the contents of that file into
       the argument list.

   Example - Single Arg File
       You could use a single argument file named argfile to  hold  all  javac
       arguments:

                % javac @argfile

       This  argument  file  could contain the contents of both files shown in
       the next example.

   Example - Two Arg Files
       You can create two argument files -- one for the javac options and  the
       other  for  the  source  filenames: (Notice the following lists have no
       line-continuation characters.)

       Create a file named options containing:

              -d classes
              -g
              -sourcepath /java/pubs/ws/1.3/src/share/classes

       Create a file named classes containing:

              MyClass1.java
              MyClass2.java
              MyClass3.java

       You would then run javac with:

              % javac @options @classes

   Example - Arg Files with Paths
       The argument files can have paths, but any filenames inside  the  files
       are relative to the current working directory (not path1 or path2):

              % javac @path1/options @path2/classes


EXAMPLES

   Compiling a Simple Program
       One  source  file,  Hello.java, defines a class called greetings.Hello.
       The greetings directory is the package directory both  for  the  source
       file  and the class file and is off the current directory.  This allows
       us to use the default user class path. It also makes it unnecessary  to
       specify a separate destination directory with -d.

          % ls
             greetings/
          % ls greetings
             Hello.java
          % cat greetings/Hello.java
             package greetings;

             public class Hello {
                  public static void main(String[] args) {
                     for (int i=0; i < args.length; i++) {
                         System.out.println("Hello " + args[i]);
                     }
                  }
             }
          % javac greetings/Hello.java
          % ls greetings
             Hello.class   Hello.java
          % java greetings.Hello World Universe Everyone
             Hello World
             Hello Universe
             Hello Everyone

   Compiling Multiple Source Files
       This example compiles all the source files in the package greetings.

          % ls
             greetings/
          % ls greetings
             Aloha.java     GutenTag.java     Hello.java      Hi.java
          % javac greetings/*.java
          % ls greetings
             Aloha.class    GutenTag.class    Hello.class     Hi.class
             Aloha.java     GutenTag.java     Hello.java      Hi.java

   Specifying a User Class Path
       Having  changed  one  of  the  source files in the previous example, we
       recompile it:

          % pwd
             /examples
          % javac greetings/Hi.java

       Since the class greetings.Hi refers to other classes in  the  greetings
       package,  the  compiler needs to find these other classes.  The example
       above works, because our default user class  path  happens  to  be  the
       directory  containing  the  package  directory.  But suppose we want to
       recompile this file and not worry about which directory we're in?  Then
       we  need  to  add  /examples to the user class path.  We can do this by
       setting CLASSPATH, but here we'll use the -classpath option.

          % javac -classpath /examples /examples/greetings/Hi.java

       If we change greetings.Hi again, to use a banner utility, that  utility
       also needs to be accessible through the user class path.

          % javac -classpath /examples:/lib/Banners.jar /examples/greetings/Hi.java

       To  execute  a class in greetings, we need access both to greetings and
       to the classes it uses.

          % java -classpath /examples:/lib/Banners.jar greetings.Hi

   Separating Source Files and Class Files
       It often makes sense to keep source files and class files  in  separate
       directories,  especially  on large projects.  We use -d to indicate the
       separate class file destination.  Since the source files are not in the
       user class path, we use -sourcepath to help the compiler find them.

          % ls
             classes/  lib/      src/
          % ls src
             farewells/
          % ls src/farewells
             Base.java      GoodBye.java
          % ls lib
             Banners.jar
          % ls classes
          % javac -sourcepath src -classpath classes:lib/Banners.jar \
             src/farewells/GoodBye.java -d classes
          % ls classes
             farewells/
          % ls classes/farewells
             Base.class      GoodBye.class

       Note:  The  compiler  compiled  src/farewells/Base.java, even though we
       didn't specify it on the command line.  To  trace  automatic  compiles,
       use the -verbose option.

   Cross-Compilation Example
       Here we use javac to compile code that will run on a 1.4 VM.

          % javac -target 1.4 -bootclasspath jdk1.4.2/lib/classes.zip \
               -extdirs "" OldCode.java

       The  -target  1.4 option ensures that the generated class files will be
       compatible with 1.4 VMs.  BY default, javac compiles for 1.5.

       The Java 2 SDk's javac would also by default compile  against  its  own
       bootstrap  classes, so we need to tell javac to compile against JDK 1.4
       bootstrap  classes  instead.   We  do  this  with  -bootclasspath   and
       -extdirs.   Failing to do this might allow compilation against a Java 2
       Platform API that would not be present on a 1.4 VM and  would  fail  at
       runtime.


SEE ALSO

       jar(1), java(1), javadoc(1), javah(1), javap(1), jdb(1)

       See or search the Java web site for the following:

       The Java Extensions Mechanism @
                 http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5/docs/guide/extensions/index.html




                                 05 March 2002                        javac(1)

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