top - display and update sorted information about processes
top [-a | -d | -e | -c <mode>] [-F | -f] [-h] [-i <interval>] [-l <samples>] [-ncols <columns>] [-o <key>] [-O <skey>] [-R | -r] [-S] [-s <delay>] [-n <nprocs>] [-stats <keys>] [-pid <processid>] [-user <username>] [-U <username>] [-u]
The top program periodically displays a sorted list of system process- es. The default sorting key is pid, but other keys can be used in- stead. Various output options are available.
Command line option specifications are processed from left to right. Options can be specified more than once. If conflicting options are specified, later specifications override earlier ones. This makes it viable to create a shell alias for top with preferred defaults speci- fied, then override those preferred defaults as desired on the command line. -a Equivalent to -c a. -c <mode> Set event counting mode to <mode>. The supported modes are: a Accumulative mode. Count events cumulatively, starting at the launch of top. Calculate CPU usage and CPU time since the launch of top. d Delta mode. Count events relative to the previous sam- ple. Calculate CPU usage since the previous sample. This mode by default disables the memory object map re- porting. The memory object map reporting may be re-en- abled with the -r option or the interactive r command. e Absolute mode. Count events using absolute counters. n Non-event mode (default). Calculate CPU usage since the previous sample. -d Equivalent to -c d. -e Equivalent to -c e. -F Do not calculate statistics on shared libraries, also known as frameworks. -f Calculate statistics on shared libraries, also known as frame- works (default). -h Print command line usage information and exit. -i <interval> Update framework (-f) info every <interval> samples; see the PERFORMANCE vs. ACCURACY section below for more details. -l <samples> Use logging mode and display <samples> samples, even if standard output is a terminal. 0 is treated as infinity. Rather than redisplaying, output is periodically printed in raw form. Note that the first sample displayed will have an invalid %CPU dis- played for each process, as it is calculated using the delta be- tween samples. -ncols <columns> Display <columns> when using logging mode. The default is infi- nite. The number must be > 0 or an error will occur. -n <nprocs> Only display up to <nprocs> processes. -O <skey> Use <skey> as a secondary key when ordering the process display. See -o for key names (pid is the default). -o <key> Order the process display by sorting on <key> in descending or- der. A + or - can be prefixed to the key name to specify as- cending or descending order, respectively. The supported keys are: pid Process ID (default). command Command name. cpu CPU usage. cpu_me CPU time charged to me by other processes. cpu_others CPU time charged to other processes by me. csw Number of context switches. time Execution time. threads alias: th Number of threads (total/running). ports alias: prt Number of Mach ports. mregion alias: mreg, reg Number of memory regions. mem Internal memory size. rprvt Resident private address space size. purg Purgeable memory size. vsize Total memory size. vprvt Private address space size. kprvt Private kernel memory size. kshrd Shared kernel memory size. pgrp Process group id. ppid Parent process id. state alias: pstate Process state. uid User ID. wq alias: #wq, workqueue The workqueue total/running. faults alias: fault The number of page faults. cow alias: cow_faults The copy-on-write faults. user alias: username Username. msgsent Total number of mach messages sent. msgrecv Total number of mach messages received. sysbsd Total BSD syscalls. sysmach Total Mach syscalls. pageins Total pageins. boosts The number of boosts held by the process. This is fol- lowed by the number of times the process has transitioned from unboosted to boosted in brackets. An asterisk be- fore the value indicates that the process was able to send boosts at some point since the previous update. For more information about boosts, see xpc_transaction_be- gin(3). -R Do not traverse and report the memory object map for each process. -r Traverse and report the memory object map for each process (de- fault). -S Display the global statistics for swap and purgeable memory. -s <delay> Set the delay between updates to <delay> seconds. The default delay between updates is 1 second. -stats <keys> Only display the comma separated statistics. See the -o flag for the valid <keys>. -pid <processid> Only display <processid> in top. -user <user> Only display processes owned by <user>. -U <user> This is an alias for -user. -u This is an alias equivalent to: -o cpu -O time.
The first several lines of the top display show various global state. All of the information is labeled. Following is an alphabetical list of global state fields and their descriptions. CPU Percentage of processor usage, broken into user, system, and idle components. The time period for which these per- centages are calculated depends on the event counting mode. Disks Number and total size of disk reads and writes. LoadAvg Load average over 1, 5, and 15 minutes. The load average is the average number of jobs in the run queue. MemRegions Number and total size of memory regions, and total size of memory regions broken into private (broken into non-library and library) and shared components. Networks Number and total size of input and output network packets. PhysMem Physical memory usage, broken into wired, active, inactive, used, and free components. Procs Total number of processes and number of processes in each process state. SharedLibs Resident sizes of code and data segments, and link editor memory usage. Threads Number of threads. Time Time, in H:MM:SS format. When running in logging mode Time is in YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS format by default, but may be overridden with accumulative mode. When running in accumu- lative event counting mode, the Time is in HH:MM:SS since the beginning of the top process. VirtMem Total virtual memory, virtual memory consumed by shared li- braries, and number of pageins and pageouts. Swap Swap usage: total size of swap areas, amount of swap space in use and amount of swap space available. Purgeable Number of pages purged and number of pages currently purge- able. Below the global state fields, a list of processes is displayed. The fields that are displayed depend on the options that are set. The pid field displays the following for the architecture: + for 64-bit native architecture, or - for 32-bit native architecture, or * for a non-native architecture. INTERACTION When top is run in interactive (non-logging) mode, it is possi- ble to control the output of top, as well as interactively send signals to processes. The interactive command syntax is terse. Each command is one character, followed by 0 to 2 arguments. Commands that take arguments prompt interactively for the argu- ments, and where applicable, the default value is shown in square brackets. The default value can be selected by leaving the input field blank and pressing enter. ^G escapes the inter- active argument prompt, and has the same effect as leaving the input field blank and pressing enter. The following commands are supported: ? Display the help screen. Any character exits help screen mode. This command always works, even in the middle of a command. ^L Redraw the screen. c<mode> Set output mode to <mode>. The supported modes are: a Accumulative mode. d Delta mode. e Event mode. n Non-event mode. O<skey> Use <skey> as a secondary key when ordering the process display. See the -o option for key names. o<key> Order the process display by sorting on <key> in descending or- der. A + or - can be prefixed to the key name to specify as- cending or descending order, respectively. The supported keys and alises are listed with the -o option above. q Quit. r Toggle traversal and reporting of the memory object map for each process. S<signal><pid> Send <sig> to <pid>. <sig> can be specified either as a number or as a name (for example, HUP). The default signal starts out as TERM. Each time a signal is successfully sent, the default signal is updated to be that signal. <pid> is a process id. s<delay> Set the delay between updates to <delay> seconds. U<user> Only display processes owned by <user>. Either the username or uid number can be specified. To display all processes, press enter without entering a username or uid number.
PERFORMANCE vs. ACCURACY
Calculating detailed memory statistics is fundamentally resource-inten- sive. To reduce the cpu usage in top, the -i parameter has been intro- duced to allow the user to tune this tradeoff. With the default value of 10, framework stats will be updated once every 10 samples. Specify- ing -i 1 will result in the most accurate display, at the expense of system resources.
N/A - Not Available
When this occurs in a stat it's caused by the memory object map report- ing being disabled. Memory object map reporting is disabled by default in delta mode, but may be optionally enabled via -r or the interactive r command. To enable the -r option use it after any -c mode options.
top -o cpu -O +rsize -s 5 -n 20 Sort the processes according to CPU usage (descending) and resi- dent memory size (ascending), sample and update the display at 5 second intervals, and limit the display to 20 processes. top -c d Run top in delta mode. top -stats pid,command,cpu,th,pstate,time Display only the specified statistics, regardless of any growth of the terminal. If the terminal is too small, only the statis- tics that fit will be displayed.
kill(2), vm_stat(1), signal(3), vmmap(1) top top(1)
OS X 10.10 - Generated Wed Oct 29 18:59:24 CDT 2014