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ExtUtils::MM_Any(3pm)  Perl Programmers Reference Guide  ExtUtils::MM_Any(3pm)


       ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform-agnostic MM methods



         package ExtUtils::MM_SomeOS;

         # Temporarily, you have to subclass both.  Put MM_Any first.
         require ExtUtils::MM_Any;
         require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;
         @ISA = qw(ExtUtils::MM_Any ExtUtils::Unix);



       ExtUtils::MM_Any is a superclass for the ExtUtils::MM_* set of modules.
       It contains methods which are either inherently cross-platform or are
       written in a cross-platform manner.

       Subclass off of ExtUtils::MM_Any and ExtUtils::MM_Unix.  This is a
       temporary solution.



       Any methods marked Abstract must be implemented by subclasses.

   Cross-platform helper methods
       These are methods which help writing cross-platform code.

       os_flavor  Abstract

           my @os_flavor = $mm->os_flavor;

       @os_flavor is the style of operating system this is, usually
       corresponding to the MM_*.pm file we're using.

       The first element of @os_flavor is the major family (ie. Unix, Windows,
       VMS, OS/2, etc...) and the rest are sub families.

       Some examples:

           Cygwin98       ('Unix',  'Cygwin', 'Cygwin9x')
           Windows        ('Win32')
           Win98          ('Win32', 'Win9x')
           Linux          ('Unix',  'Linux')
           MacOS X        ('Unix',  'Darwin', 'MacOS', 'MacOS X')
           OS/2           ('OS/2')

       This is used to write code for styles of operating system.  See
       os_flavor_is() for use.


           my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is($this_flavor);
           my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is(@one_of_these_flavors);

       Checks to see if the current operating system is one of the given

       This is useful for code like:

           if( $mm->os_flavor_is('Unix') ) {
               $out = `foo 2>&1`;
           else {
               $out = `foo`;


           my $can_load_xs = $self->can_load_xs;

       Returns true if we have the ability to load XS.

       This is important because miniperl, used to build XS modules in the
       core, can not load XS.


         use ExtUtils::MM;
         my $runnable = MM->can_run($Config{make});

       If called in a scalar context it will return the full path to the
       binary you asked for if it was found, or "undef" if it was not.

       If called in a list context, it will return a list of the full paths to
       instances of the binary where found in "PATH", or an empty list if it
       was not found.

       Copied from IPC::Cmd, but modified into a method (and removed
       $INSTANCES capability).


         $useredirect = MM->can_redirect_error;

       True if on an OS where qx operator (or backticks) can redirect "STDERR"
       onto "STDOUT".


           my $is_dmake = $self->is_make_type('dmake');

       Returns true if "<$self-"make>> is the given type; possibilities are:

         gmake    GNU make
         bsdmake  BSD pmake-derived


           my $can_dep_space = $self->can_dep_space;

       Returns true if "make" can handle (probably by quoting) dependencies
       that contain a space. Currently known true for GNU make, false for BSD
       pmake derivative.


         $text = $mm->quote_dep($text);

       Method that protects Makefile single-value constants (mainly
       filenames), so that make will still treat them as single values even if
       they inconveniently have spaces in. If the make program being used
       cannot achieve such protection and the given text would need it, throws
       an exception.


           my @cmds = $MM->split_command($cmd, @args);

       Most OS have a maximum command length they can execute at once.  Large
       modules can easily generate commands well past that limit.  Its
       necessary to split long commands up into a series of shorter commands.

       "split_command" will return a series of @cmds each processing part of
       the args.  Collectively they will process all the arguments.  Each
       individual line in @cmds will not be longer than the
       $self->max_exec_len being careful to take into account macro expansion.

       $cmd should include any switches and repeated initial arguments.

       If no @args are given, no @cmds will be returned.

       Pairs of arguments will always be preserved in a single command, this
       is a heuristic for things like pm_to_blib and pod2man which work on
       pairs of arguments.  This makes things like this safe:

           $self->split_command($cmd, %pod2man);


       Returns a suitable string describing the type of makefile being


           my @recipelines = $MM->stashmeta($text, $file);

       Generates a set of @recipelines which will result in the literal $text
       ending up in literal $file when the recipe is executed. Call it once,
       with all the text you want in $file. Make macros will not be expanded,
       so the locations will be fixed at configure-time, not at build-time.


           my @commands = $MM->echo($text);
           my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file);
           my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file, \%opts);

       Generates a set of @commands which print the $text to a $file.

       If $file is not given, output goes to STDOUT.

       If $opts{append} is true the $file will be appended to rather than
       overwritten.  Default is to overwrite.

       If $opts{allow_variables} is true, make variables of the form "$(...)"
       will not be escaped.  Other "$" will.  Default is to escape all "$".

       Example of use:

           my $make = join '', map "\t$_\n", $MM->echo($text, $file);


         my $args = $mm->wraplist(@list);

       Takes an array of items and turns them into a well-formatted list of
       arguments.  In most cases this is simply something like:

           FOO \
           BAR \


           my $filter_make_text = $mm->maketext_filter($make_text);

       The text of the Makefile is run through this method before writing to
       disk.  It allows systems a chance to make portability fixes to the

       By default it does nothing.

       This method is protected and not intended to be called outside of

       cd  Abstract

         my $subdir_cmd = $MM->cd($subdir, @cmds);

       This will generate a make fragment which runs the @cmds in the given
       $dir.  The rough equivalent to this, except cross platform.

         cd $subdir && $cmd

       Currently $dir can only go down one level.  "foo" is fine.  "foo/bar"
       is not.  "../foo" is right out.

       The resulting $subdir_cmd has no leading tab nor trailing newline.
       This makes it easier to embed in a make string.  For example.

             my $make = sprintf <<'CODE', $subdir_cmd;
         foo :
             $(ECHO) what
             $(ECHO) mouche

       oneliner  Abstract

         my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code);
         my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code, \@switches);

       This will generate a perl one-liner safe for the particular platform
       you're on based on the given $perl_code and @switches (a -e is assumed)
       suitable for using in a make target.  It will use the proper shell
       quoting and escapes.

       $(PERLRUN) will be used as perl.

       Any newlines in $perl_code will be escaped.  Leading and trailing
       newlines will be stripped.  Makes this idiom much easier:

           my $code = $MM->oneliner(<<'CODE', [...switches...]);
       some code here
       another line here

       Usage might be something like:

           # an echo emulation
           $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('print "Foo\n"');
           $make = '$oneliner > somefile';

       Dollar signs in the $perl_code will be protected from make using the
       "quote_literal" method, unless they are recognised as being a make
       variable, "$(varname)", in which case they will be left for make to
       expand. Remember to quote make macros else it might be used as a
       bareword. For example:

           # Assign the value of the $(VERSION_FROM) make macro to $vf.
           $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('$vf = "$(VERSION_FROM)"');

       Its currently very simple and may be expanded sometime in the figure to
       include more flexible code and switches.

       quote_literal  Abstract

           my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text);
           my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text, \%options);

       This will quote $text so it is interpreted literally in the shell.

       For example, on Unix this would escape any single-quotes in $text and
       put single-quotes around the whole thing.

       If $options{allow_variables} is true it will leave '$(FOO)' make
       variables untouched.  If false they will be escaped like any other "$".
       Defaults to true.


           my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_dollarsigns($text);

       Escapes stray "$" so they are not interpreted as make variables.

       It lets by "$(...)".


           my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_all_dollarsigns($text);

       Escapes all "$" so they are not interpreted as make variables.

       escape_newlines  Abstract

           my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_newlines($text);

       Shell escapes newlines in $text.

       max_exec_len  Abstract

           my $max_exec_len = $MM->max_exec_len;

       Calculates the maximum command size the OS can exec.  Effectively, this
       is the max size of a shell command line.


           my $make = $MM->make;

       Returns the make variant we're generating the Makefile for.  This
       attempts to do some normalization on the information from %Config or
       the user.

       These are methods which produce make targets.


       Generate the default target 'all'.


           my $make_frag = $mm->blibdirs_target;

       Creates the blibdirs target which creates all the directories we use in

       The blibdirs.ts target is deprecated.  Depend on blibdirs instead.

       clean (o)

       Defines the clean target.


         my $make_frag = $MM->clean_subdirs_target;

       Returns the clean_subdirs target.  This is used by the clean target to
       call clean on any subdirectories which contain Makefiles.


           my $make_frag = $mm->dir_target(@directories);

       Generates targets to create the specified directories and set its
       permission to PERM_DIR.

       Because depending on a directory to just ensure it exists doesn't work
       too well (the modified time changes too often) dir_target() creates a
       .exists file in the created directory.  It is this you should depend
       on.  For portability purposes you should use the $(DIRFILESEP) macro
       rather than a '/' to separate the directory from the file.



       Defines the scratch directory target that will hold the distribution
       before tar-ing (or shar-ing).


       Defines a target that produces the distribution in the scratch
       directory, and runs 'perl Makefile.PL; make ;make test' in that


       Returns command-line arg(s) to linker for file listing dlsyms to
       export.  Defaults to returning empty string, can be overridden by e.g.


       Returns file-extension for "xs_make_dlsyms" method's output file,
       including any "." character.


       Returns any extra text to be prepended to the $extra argument of


       Iterates over necessary shared objects, calling "xs_make_dlsyms" method
       for each with appropriate arguments.


               \%attribs, # hashref from %attribs in caller
               "$self->{BASEEXT}.def", # output file for Makefile target
               'Makefile.PL', # dependency
               $self->{NAME}, # shared object's "name"
               $self->{DLBASE}, # last ::-separated part of name
               $attribs{DL_FUNCS} || $self->{DL_FUNCS} || {}, # various params
               $attribs{FUNCLIST} || $self->{FUNCLIST} || [],
               $attribs{IMPORTS} || $self->{IMPORTS} || {},
               $attribs{DL_VARS} || $self->{DL_VARS} || [],
               # optional extra param that will be added as param to Mksymlists

       Utility method that returns Makefile snippet to call "Mksymlists".

       dynamic (o)

       Defines the dynamic target.


         my $make_frag = $mm->makemakerdflt_target

       Returns a make fragment with the makemakerdeflt_target specified.  This
       target is the first target in the Makefile, is the default target and
       simply points off to 'all' just in case any make variant gets confused
       or something gets snuck in before the real 'all' target.


         my $manifypods_target = $self->manifypods_target;

       Generates the manifypods target.  This target generates man pages from
       all POD files in MAN1PODS and MAN3PODS.


           my $target = $mm->metafile_target;

       Generate the metafile target.

       Writes the file META.yml (YAML encoded meta-data) and META.json (JSON
       encoded meta-data) about the module in the distdir.  The format follows
       Module::Build's as closely as possible.


           my $metadata_hashref = $mm->metafile_data(\%meta_add, \%meta_merge);

       Returns the data which MakeMaker turns into the META.yml file and the
       META.json file. It is always in version 2.0 of the format.

       Values of %meta_add will overwrite any existing metadata in those keys.
       %meta_merge will be merged with them.


           my $meta_yml = $mm->metafile_file(@metadata_pairs);

       Turns the @metadata_pairs into YAML.

       This method does not implement a complete YAML dumper, being limited to
       dump a hash with values which are strings, undef's or nested hashes and
       arrays of strings. No quoting/escaping is done.


           my $make_frag = $mm->distmeta_target;

       Generates the distmeta target to add META.yml and META.json to the
       MANIFEST in the distdir.


           my $mymeta = $mm->mymeta;

       Generate MYMETA information as a hash either from an existing CPAN Meta
       file (META.json or META.yml) or from internal data.


           $self->write_mymeta( $mymeta );

       Write MYMETA information to MYMETA.json and MYMETA.yml.

       realclean (o)

       Defines the realclean target.


         my $make_frag = $MM->realclean_subdirs_target;

       Returns the realclean_subdirs target.  This is used by the realclean
       target to call realclean on any subdirectories which contain Makefiles.


           my $target = $mm->signature_target;

       Generate the signature target.

       Writes the file SIGNATURE with "cpansign -s".


           my $make_frag = $mm->distsignature_target;

       Generates the distsignature target to add SIGNATURE to the MANIFEST in
       the distdir.


         my $make_frag = $mm->special_targets

       Returns a make fragment containing any targets which have special
       meaning to make.  For example, .SUFFIXES and .PHONY.

   Init methods
       Methods which help initialize the MakeMaker object and macros.





       Called by init_main.  Sets up all INST_* variables except those related
       to XS code.  Those are handled in init_xs.



       Called by init_main.  Sets up all INSTALL_* variables (except





       init_VERSION  Abstract


       Initialize macros representing versions of MakeMaker and other tools

       MAKEMAKER: path to the MakeMaker module.

       MM_VERSION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker Version

       MM_REVISION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker version control revision (for

       VERSION: version of your module

       VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the version (usually 'VERSION')

       VERSION_SYM: like version but safe for use as an RCS revision number

       DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the module version when compiling

       XS_VERSION: version in your .xs file.  Defaults to $(VERSION)

       XS_VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the XS version.

       XS_DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the xs version when compiling.

       Called by init_main.



       Initializes the simple macro definitions used by tools_other() and
       places them in the $MM object.  These use conservative cross platform
       versions and should be overridden with platform specific versions for

       Defines at least these macros.

         Macro             Description

         NOOP              Do nothing
         NOECHO            Tell make not to display the command itself

         SHELL             Program used to run shell commands

         ECHO              Print text adding a newline on the end
         RM_F              Remove a file
         RM_RF             Remove a directory
         TOUCH             Update a file's timestamp
         TEST_F            Test for a file's existence
         TEST_S            Test the size of a file
         CP                Copy a file
         CP_NONEMPTY       Copy a file if it is not empty
         MV                Move a file
         CHMOD             Change permissions on a file
         FALSE             Exit with non-zero
         TRUE              Exit with zero

         UMASK_NULL        Nullify umask
         DEV_NULL          Suppress all command output



       Initializes the macro definitions having to do with compiling and
       linking used by tools_other() and places them in the $MM object.

       If there is no description, its the same as the parameter to
       WriteMakefile() documented in ExtUtils::MakeMaker.


           my $make_frag = $MM->tools_other;

       Returns a make fragment containing definitions for the macros
       init_others() initializes.

       init_DIRFILESEP  Abstract

         my $dirfilesep = $MM->{DIRFILESEP};

       Initializes the DIRFILESEP macro which is the separator between the
       directory and filename in a filepath.  ie. / on Unix, \ on Win32 and
       nothing on VMS.

       For example:

           # instead of $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.ld

       Something of a hack but it prevents a lot of code duplication between
       MM_* variants.

       Do not use this as a separator between directories.  Some operating
       systems use different separators between subdirectories as between
       directories and filenames (for example:  VOLUME:[dir1.dir2]file on

       init_linker  Abstract


       Initialize macros which have to do with linking.

       PERL_ARCHIVE: path to libperl.a equivalent to be linked to dynamic

       PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER: path to a library which should be put on the linker
       command line after the external libraries to be linked to dynamic
       extensions.  This may be needed if the linker is one-pass, and Perl
       includes some overrides for C RTL functions, such as malloc().

       EXPORT_LIST: name of a file that is passed to linker to define symbols
       to be exported.

       Some OSes do not need these in which case leave it blank.



       Initialize any macros which are for platform specific use only.

       A typical one is the version number of your OS specific module.  (ie.



       Initialize MAKE from either a MAKE environment variable or

       A grab bag of methods to generate specific macros and commands.


       Defines targets and routines to translate the pods into manpages and
       put them into the INST_* directories.


         my $pod2man_macro = $self->POD2MAN_macro

       Returns a definition for the POD2MAN macro.  This is a program which
       emulates the pod2man utility.  You can add more switches to the command
       by simply appending them on the macro.

       Typical usage:

           $(POD2MAN) --section=3 --perm_rw=$(PERM_RW) podfile1 man_page1 ...


         my $command = $mm->test_via_harness($perl, $tests);

       Returns a $command line which runs the given set of $tests with
       Test::Harness and the given $perl.

       Used on the t/*.t files.


         my $command = $mm->test_via_script($perl, $script);

       Returns a $command line which just runs a single test without
       Test::Harness.  No checks are done on the results, they're just

       Used for, since they don't always follow Test::Harness


       Defines a simple perl call that runs autosplit. May be deprecated by
       pm_to_blib soon.


           my $arch_ok = $mm->arch_check(
               File::Spec->catfile($Config{archlibexp}, "")

       A sanity check that what Perl thinks the architecture is and what
       Config thinks the architecture is are the same.  If they're not it will
       return false and show a diagnostic message.

       When building Perl it will always return true, as nothing is installed

       The interface is a bit odd because this is the result of a quick
       refactoring.  Don't rely on it.

   File::Spec wrappers
       ExtUtils::MM_Any is a subclass of File::Spec.  The methods noted here
       override File::Spec.


       File::Spec <= 0.83 has a bug where the file part of catfile is not
       canonicalized.  This override fixes that bug.

       Methods I can't really figure out where they should go yet.


         my $test = $mm->find_tests;

       Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return all tests
       in t/*.t.


         my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive;

       Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return all tests
       in t/ but recursively. Equivalent to

         my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive_in('t');


         my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive_in($dir);

       Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return all tests
       in $dir recursively.


           my @files_to_clean = $MM->extra_clean_files;

       Returns a list of OS specific files to be removed in the clean target
       in addition to the usual set.


           my @installvars = $mm->installvars;

       A list of all the INSTALL* variables without the INSTALL prefix.
       Useful for iteration or building related variable sets.


         my $wanted = $self->libscan($path);

       Takes a path to a file or dir and returns an empty string if we don't
       want to include this file in the library.  Otherwise it returns the the
       $path unchanged.

       Mainly used to exclude version control administrative directories and
       base-level README.pod from installation.


           my $make_frag = $mm->platform_constants

       Returns a make fragment defining all the macros initialized in
       init_platform() rather than put them in constants().

       post_constants (o)

       Returns an empty string per default. Dedicated to overrides from within
       Makefile.PL after all constants have been defined.

       post_initialize (o)

       Returns an empty string per default. Used in Makefile.PLs to add some
       chunk of text to the Makefile after the object is initialized.

       postamble (o)

       Returns an empty string. Can be used in Makefile.PLs to write some text
       to the Makefile at the end.


       Michael G Schwern <> and the denizens of with code from ExtUtils::MM_Unix and

perl v5.28.1                      2018-11-01             ExtUtils::MM_Any(3pm)

perl 5.28.1 - Generated Sat Jan 12 07:35:21 CST 2019
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