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Locale::Codes(3pm)     Perl Programmers Reference Guide     Locale::Codes(3pm)


       Locale::Codes - a distribution of modules to handle locale codes


       Locale-Codes is a distribution containing a set of modules.  The
       modules each deal with different types of codes which identify parts of
       the locale including languages, countries, currency, etc.

       Currently, the following modules are included:

       Locale::Codes::Country, Locale::Country
           This includes support for country codes (such as those listed in
           ISO-3166) to specify the country.

           Because this module was originally distributed as Locale::Country,
           it is also available under that name.

       Locale::Codes::Language, Locale::Language
           This includes support for language codes (such as those listed in
           ISO-639) to specify the language.

           Because this module was originally distributed as Locale::Language,
           it is also available under that name.

       Locale::Codes::Currency, Locale::Currency
           This includes support for currency codes (such as those listed in
           ISO-4217) to specify the currency.

           Because this module was originally distributed as Locale::Currency,
           it is also available under that name.

       Locale::Codes::Script, Locale::Script
           This includes support for script codes (such as those listed in
           ISO-15924) to specify the script.

           Because this module was originally distributed as Locale::Script,
           it is also available under that name.

           This includes support for language extension codes (such as those
           listed in the IANA language registry) to specify the language

           This includes support for language variation codes (such as those
           listed in the IANA language registry) to specify the language

           This includes support for language family codes (such as those
           listed in ISO 639-5) to specify families of languages.

       Each module can support an arbitrary number of code sets, and it is not
       required that the relationship between these code sets be one-to-one.
       For example, the Locale::Codes::Country module supports code sets from
       ISO-3166 and the IANA standard, and those two standards do not break
       the world down into exactly the same sets of countries. This does not
       cause any problem (though converting codes from ISO-3166 to IANA or
       back will not work except for countries that are one-to-one).

       All data in all of these modules comes directly from the original
       standards (or as close to direct as possible), so it should be up-to-
       date at the time of release.

       I plan on releasing a new version several times a year to incorporate
       any changes made in the standards. However, I don't always know about
       changes that occur, so if any of the standards change, and you want a
       new release sooner, just email me and I'll get one out.

       In addition to the modules above, there are a number of support modules
       included in the distribution including:


       These modules are not intended to be used by programmers. They contain
       functions or data that are used by the modules listed above.  No
       support of any kind is offered for using these modules directly.  They
       may be modified at any time.


       I'm always open to suggestions for new code sets.

       In order for me to add a code set, I want the following criteria to be

       General-use code set
           If a code set is not general use, I'm not likely to spend the time
           to add and support it.

       An official source of data
           I require an official (or at least, a NEARLY official) source where
           I can get the data on a regular basis.

           Ideally, I'd only get data from an official source, but sometimes
           that is not possible. For example the ISO standards are not
           typically available for free, so I may have to get some of that
           data from alternate sources that I'm confident are getting their
           data from the official source.  However, I will always be hesitant
           to accept a non-official source.

           As an example, I used to get some country data from the CIA World
           Factbook. Given the nature of the source, I'm sure they're updating
           data from the official sources and I consider it "nearly" official.
           However, even in this case, I found that they were adding codes
           that were not part of the standard, so I have stopped using them as
           a source.

           There are many 3rd party sites which maintain lists (many of which
           are actually in a more convenient form than the official sites).
           Unfortunately, I will reject most of them since I have no feel for
           how "official" they are.

       A free source of the data
           Obviously, the data must be free-of-charge. I'm not interested in
           paying for the data (and I'm not interested in the overhead of
           having someone else pay for the data for me).

       A reliable source of data
           The source of data must come from a source that I can reasonably
           expect to exist for the foreseeable future since I will be
           extremely reluctant to drop support for a data set once it's

           I am also reluctant to accept data sent to me by an individual.
           Although I appreciate the offer, it is simply not practical to
           consider an individual contribution as a reliable source of data.
           The source should be an official agency of some sort.

       These requirements are open to discussion. If you have a code set you'd
       like to see added, but which may not meet all of the above
       requirements, feel free to email me and we'll discuss it.  Depending on
       circumstances, I may be willing to waive some of these criteria.


       As of version 2.00, the modules supported common variants of names.

       For example, Locale::Country supports variant names for countries, and
       a few of the most common ones are included in the data. The country
       code for "United States" is "us", so:

          country2code('United States');
            => "us"

       Now the following will also return 'us':

          country2code('United States of America');

       Any number of common aliases may be included in the data, in addition
       to the names that come directly from the standards.  If you have a
       common alias for a country, language, or any other of the types of
       codes, let me know and I'll add it, with some restrictions.

       For example, the country name "North Korea" never appeared in any of
       the official sources (instead, it was "Korea, North" or "Korea,
       Democratic People's Republic of". I would honor a request to add an
       alias "North Korea" since that's a very common way to specify the
       country (please don't request this... I've already added it).

       On the other hand, a request to add Zaire as an alias for "Congo, The
       Democratic Republic of" will not be honored. The country's official
       name is no longer Zaire, so adding it as an alias violates the
       standard.  Zaire was kept as an alias in versions of this module prior
       to 3.00, but it has been removed. Other aliases (if any) which no
       longer appear in any standard (and which are not common variations of
       the name in the standards) have also been removed.


       Occasionally, a code is deprecated, but it may still be desirable to
       have access to it.

       Although there is no way to see every code that has ever existed and
       been deprecated (since most codesets do not have that information
       available), as of version 3.20, every code which has ever been included
       in these modules can be referenced.

       For more information, refer to the documentation on the code2XXX,
       XXX2code, all_XXX_codes, and all_XXX_names function in the
       Locale::Codes::API documentation.


           The list of functions available in each of the modules listed
           below.  The APIs for each module are exactly identical.

           Codes for identification of countries.

           Codes for identification of languages.

           Codes for identification of scripts.

           Codes for identification of currencies and funds.

           Codes for identification of language extensions.

           Codes for identification of language variations.

           Codes for identification of language families.

           A history of changes made to this distribution.


       If you find a bug in Locale::Codes, there are three ways to send it to
       me.  Any of them are fine, so use the method that is easiest for you.

       Direct email
           You are welcome to send it directly to me by email.  The email
           address to use is:

       CPAN Bug Tracking
           You can submit it using the CPAN tracking too.  This can be done at
           the following URL:


           You can submit it as an issue on GitHub.  This can be done at the
           following URL:


       Please do not use other means to report bugs (such as Usenet
       newsgroups, or forums for a specific OS or Linux distribution) as it is
       impossible for me to keep up with all of them.

       When filing a bug report, please include the following information:

       Locale::Codes version
           Please include the version of Locale::Codes you are using.  You can
           get this by using the script:

              use Locale::Codes::Country;
              print $Locale::Codes::VERSION,"\n";

       If you want to report missing or incorrect codes, you must be running
       the most recent version of Locale::Codes.

       If you find any problems with the documentation (errors, typos, or
       items that are not clear), please send them to me. I welcome any
       suggestions that will allow me to improve the documentation.


       Locale::Country and Locale::Language were originally written by Neil
       Bowers at the Canon Research Centre Europe (CRE). They maintained the
       distribution from 1997 to 2001.

       Locale::Currency was originally written by Michael Hennecke and was
       modified by Neil Bowers for inclusion in the distribution.

       From 2001 to 2004, maintenance was continued by Neil Bowers.  He
       modified Locale::Currency for inclusion in the distribution. He also
       added Locale::Constants and Locale::Script.

       From 2004-2009, the module was unmaintained.

       In 2010, maintenance was taken over by Sullivan Beck (
       with Neil Bower's permission.  All problems or comments should be sent
       there.  Alternately, problems can be reported using the perl problem
       tracker at:



          Copyright (c) 1997-2001 Canon Research Centre Europe (CRE).
          Copyright (c) 2001      Michael Hennecke (Locale::Currency)
          Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Neil Bowers
          Copyright (c) 2010-2016 Sullivan Beck

       This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.26.1                      2017-07-18                Locale::Codes(3pm)

perl 5.26.1 - Generated Sun Nov 5 16:27:55 CST 2017
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