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Locale::Codes::API(3pm)Perl Programmers Reference GuideLocale::Codes::API(3pm)


       Locale::Codes::API - a description of the callable function in each


       Although there are several modules in the Locale-Codes distribution,
       all of them (as of version 3.10) use exactly the same API.  As a matter
       of fact, each of the main callable modules are just wrappers around a
       central module which does all the real work.


       In order to maintain the documentation for the modules consistently,
       the functions are all documented here, rather than in the documentation
       for the separate modules.

       The name of the function depends on the module. For example, every
       module contains a function "code2XXX" where XXX refers to the type of
       data.  The values of XXX are described in the following table:

          XXX       MODULE

          country   Locale::Codes::Country
          language  Locale::Codes::Language
          currency  Locale::Codes::Currency
          script    Locale::Codes::Script
          langext   Locale::Codes::LangExt
          langvar   Locale::Codes::LangVar
          langfam   Locale::Codes::LangFam

       So, the Locale::Country module contains the function "code2country",
       the Locale::Language module contains the function "code2language", etc.

       In all of the functions below, CODE refers to a code for one element in
       the code set. For example, in the two-letter country codes from ISO
       3166-1, the code 'fi' is used to refer to the country Finland. CODE is
       always case insensitive when passed in as an argument, so 'fi', 'FI',
       and 'Fi' would all be equivalent arguments.  When CODE is returned from
       an argument, it will always be in the case as used in the standard.

       CODESET refers to a constant specified in the documentation for each
       module to label the various code sets. For example, in the
       Locale::Language module, CODESET could be LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2 or
       LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3 (among others). Most functions have a default one,
       so they do not need to be specified. So the following calls are valid:


       Since LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2 is the default code set, the first two are

       code2XXX ( CODE [,CODESET] [,'retired'] )
           These functions take a code and returns a string which contains the
           name of the element identified.  If the code is not a valid code in
           the CODESET specified then "undef" will be returned.

           The name of the element is the name as specified in the standard,
           and as a result, different variations of an element name may be
           returned for different values of CODESET.

           For example, the alpha-2 country code set defines the two-letter
           code "bo" to be "Bolivia, Plurinational State of", whereas the
           alpha-3 code set defines the code 'bol' to be the country "Bolivia
           (Plurinational State of)". So:

                 => 'Bolivia, Plurinational State of'

                 => 'Bolivia (Plurinational State of)'

           By default, only active codes will be used, but if the string
           'retired' is passed in as an argument, both active and retired
           codes will be examined.

       XXX2code ( NAME [,CODESET] [,'retired'] )
           These functions takes the name of an element (or any of it's
           aliases) and returns the code that corresponds to it, if it exists.
           If NAME could not be identified as the name of one of the elements,
           then "undef" will be returned.

           The name is not case sensitive. Also, any known variation of a name
           may be passed in.

           For example, even though the country name returned using
           LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2 and LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3 country codes for
           Bolivia is different, either country name may be passed in since
           for each code set (in addition to the alias 'Bolivia'). So:

              country2code('Bolivia, Plurinational State of',
                 => bo

              country2code('Bolivia (Plurinational State of)',
                 => bo

                 => bo

           By default, only active names will be used, but if the string
           'retired' is passed in as an argument, both active and retired
           names will be examined.

       XXX_code2code ( CODE ,CODESET ,CODESET2 )
           These functions takes a code from one code set, and returns the
           corresponding code from another code set. CODE must exists in the
           code set specified by CODESET and must have a corresponding code in
           the code set specified by CODESET2 or "undef" will be returned.

           Both CODESET and CODESET2 must be explicitly entered.

              country_code2code('fin', LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3,
                 => 'fi'

           Note that this function does NOT support retired codes.

       all_XXX_codes ( [CODESET] [,'retired'] )
           These returns a list of all code in the code set. The codes will be

           By default, only active codes will be returned, but if the string
           'retired' is passed in as an argument, both active and retired
           codes will be returned.

       all_XXX_names ( [CODESET] [,'retired'] )
           These return a list of all elements names for which there is a
           corresponding code in the specified code set.

           The names returned are exactly as they are specified in the
           standard, and are sorted.

           Since not all elements are listed in all code sets, the list of
           elements may differ depending on the code set specified.

           By default, only active names will be returned, but if the string
           'retired' is passed in as an argument, both active and retired
           names will be returned.


       Additional semi-private routines which may be used to modify the
       internal data are also available.  Given their status, they aren't
       exported, and so need to be called by prefixing the function name with
       the package name.

       These routines do not currently work with retired codes.

       MODULE::rename_XXX  ( CODE ,NEW_NAME [,CODESET] )
           These routines are used to change the official name of an element.
           At that point, the name returned by the "code2XXX" routine would be
           NEW_NAME instead of the name specified in the standard.

           The original name will remain as an alias.

           For example, the official country name for code 'gb' is 'United
           Kingdom'.  If you want to change that, you might call:

              Locale::Codes::Country::rename_country('gb', 'Great Britain');

           This means that calling code2country('gb') will now return 'Great
           Britain' instead of 'United Kingdom'.

           If any error occurs, a warning is issued and 0 is returned. An
           error occurs if CODE doesn't exist in the specified code set, or if
           NEW_NAME is already in use but for a different element.

           If the routine succeeds, 1 is returned.

       MODULE::add_XXX  ( CODE ,NAME [,CODESET] )
           These routines are used to add a new code and name to the data.

           Both CODE and NAME must be unused in the data set or an error
           occurs (though NAME may be used in a different data set).

           For example, to create the fictitious country named "Duchy of Grand
           Fenwick" with codes "gf" and "fen", use the following:

              Locale::Codes::Country::add_country("fe","Duchy of Grand Fenwick",

              Locale::Codes::Country::add_country("fen","Duchy of Grand Fenwick",

           The return value is 1 on success, 0 on an error.

       MODULE::delete_XXX  ( CODE [,CODESET] )
           These routines are used to delete a code from the data.

           CODE must refer to an existing code in the code set.

           The return value is 1 on success, 0 on an error.

       MODULE::add_XXX_alias  ( NAME ,NEW_NAME )
           These routines are used to add a new alias to the data. They do not
           alter the return value of the "code2XXX" function.

           NAME must be an existing element name, and NEW_NAME must be unused
           or an error occurs.

           The return value is 1 on success, 0 on an error.

       MODULE::delete_XXX_alias  ( NAME )
           These routines are used to delete an alias from the data. Once
           removed, the element may not be referred to by NAME.

           NAME must be one of a list of at least two names that may be used
           to specify an element. If the element may only be referred to by a
           single name, you'll need to use the "add_XXX_alias" function to add
           a new alias first, or the "remove_XXX" function to remove the
           element entirely.

           If the alias is used as the name in any code set, one of the other
           names will be used instead. Predicting exactly which one will be
           used requires you to know the order in which the standards were
           read, which is not reliable, so you may want to use the
           "rename_XXX" function to force one of the alternate names to be

           The return value is 1 on success, 0 on an error.

       MODULE::rename_XXX_code  ( CODE ,NEW_CODE [,CODESET] )
           These routines are used to change the official code for an element.
           At that point, the code returned by the "XXX2code" routine would be
           NEW_CODE instead of the code specified in the standard.

           NEW_CODE may either be a code that is not in use, or it may be an
           alias for CODE (in which case, CODE becomes and alias and NEW_CODE
           becomes the "real" code).

           The original code is kept as an alias, so that the "code2XXX"
           routines will work with either the code from the standard or the
           new code.

           However, the "all_XXX_codes" routine will only return the codes
           which are considered "real" (which means that the list of codes
           will now contain NEW_CODE, but will not contain CODE).

       MODULE::add_XXX_code_alias  ( CODE ,NEW_CODE [,CODESET] )
           These routines add an alias for the code. At that point, NEW_CODE
           and CODE will both work in the "code2XXX" routines. However, the
           "XXX2code" routines will still return the original code.

       MODULE::delete_XXX_code_alias  ( CODE [,CODESET] )
           These routines delete an alias for the code.

           These will only work if CODE is actually an alias. If it is the
           "real" code, it will not be deleted. You will need to use the
           "rename_XXX_code" function to switch the real code with one of the
           aliases, and then delete the alias.


       Relationship between code sets
           Because each code set uses a slightly different list of elements,
           and they are not necessarily one-to-one, there may be some
           confusion about the relationship between codes from different code

           For example, ISO 3166 assigns one code to the country "United
           States Minor Outlying Islands", but the IANA codes give different
           codes to different islands (Baker Island, Howland Island, etc.).

           This may cause some confusion... I've done the best that I could do
           to minimize it.

       Non-ASCII characters not supported
           Currently all names must be all ASCII. I plan on relaxing that
           limitation in the future.











       See Locale::Codes for full author history.

       Currently maintained by Sullivan Beck (


          Copyright (c) 1997-2001 Canon Research Centre Europe (CRE).
          Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Neil Bowers
          Copyright (c) 2010-2016 Sullivan Beck

       This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.26.1                      2017-07-18           Locale::Codes::API(3pm)

perl 5.26.1 - Generated Sun Nov 5 16:29:38 CST 2017
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