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FILEFUNCS(3am)             GNU Awk Extension Modules            FILEFUNCS(3am)


       filefuncs - provide some file related functionality to gawk


       @load "filefuncs"

       result = chdir("/some/directory")

       result = stat("/some/path", statdata [, follow])

       flags = or(FTS_PHYSICAL, ...)
       result = fts(pathlist, flags, filedata)


       The  filefuncs  extension adds several functions that provide access to
       file-related facilities.

       The chdir() function is a direct hook to the chdir(2)  system  call  to
       change  the  current  directory.   It returns zero upon success or less
       than zero upon error.  In the latter case it updates ERRNO.

       The stat() function provides a hook into the stat(2) system  call.   It
       returns  zero upon success or less than zero upon error.  In the latter
       case it updates ERRNO.  By default,  it  uses  lstat(2).   However,  if
       passed a third argument, it uses stat(2), instead.

       In  all cases, it clears the statdata array.  When the call is success-
       ful, stat() fills the statdata array with  information  retrieved  from
       the filesystem, as follows:

              The name of the file.

              Corresponds to the st_dev field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_ino field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_mode field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_nlink field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_uid field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_gid field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_size field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_atime field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_mtime field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds to the st_ctime field in the struct stat.

              Corresponds  to the st_rdev field in the struct stat.  This ele-
              ment is only present for device files.

              Corresponds to the st_major field in the struct stat.  This ele-
              ment is only present for device files.

              Corresponds to the st_minor field in the struct stat.  This ele-
              ment is only present for device files.

              Corresponds to the st_blksize field in the struct stat, if  this
              field  is  present on your system.  (It is present on all modern
              systems that we know of.)

              A human-readable version of the mode value, such as  printed  by
              ls(1).  For example, "-rwxr-xr-x".

              If  the  named  file is a symbolic link, this element will exist
              and its value is the value of the symbolic link (where the  sym-
              bolic link points to).

              The  type  of  the  file as a string. One of "file", "blockdev",
              "chardev", "directory", "socket", "fifo", "symlink", "door",  or
              "unknown".  Not all systems support all file types.

       The  fts()  function  provides a hook to the fts(3) set of routines for
       traversing file hierarchies.  Instead of returning data about one  file
       at  a time in a stream, it fills in a multi-dimensional array with data
       about each file and directory encountered in the requested hierarchies.

       The arguments are as follows:

              An  array  of filenames.  The element values are used; the index
              values are ignored.

       flags  This should be the bitwise OR of one or more  of  the  following
              predefined   flag  values.   At  least  one  of  FTS_LOGICAL  or
              FTS_PHYSICAL must be provided; otherwise fts() returns an  error
              value and sets ERRNO.

                     Do  a  ``logical''  file traversal, where the information
                     returned for a symbolic  link  refers  to  the  linked-to
                     file,  and not to the symbolic link itself.  This flag is
                     mutually exclusive with FTS_PHYSICAL.

                     Do a ``physical'' file traversal, where  the  information
                     returned  for a symbolic link refers to the symbolic link
                     itself.  This flag is mutually exclusive  with  FTS_LOGI-

                     As a performance optimization, the fts(3) routines change
                     directory as they traverse a file hierarchy.   This  flag
                     disables that optimization.

                     Immediately  follow  a  symbolic  link named in pathlist,
                     whether or not FTS_LOGICAL is set.

                     By default, the fts(3) routines do not return entries for
                     ``.''  and ``..''.  This option causes entries for ``..''
                     to also be included.  (The AWK extension always  includes
                     an entry for ``.'', see below.)

                     During a traversal, do not cross onto a different mounted

              The filedata array is first cleared.   Then,  fts()  creates  an
              element in filedata for every element in pathlist.  The index is
              the name of the directory or file given in pathlist.   The  ele-
              ment for this index is itself an array.  There are two cases.

              The path is a file.
                     In this case, the array contains two or three elements:

                     "path" The  full  path  to  this  file, starting from the
                            ``root'' that was given in the pathlist array.

                     "stat" This element is itself an  array,  containing  the
                            same  information  as provided by the stat() func-
                            tion described earlier for its statdata  argument.
                            The  element may not be present if stat(2) for the
                            file failed.

                            If some kind of error was encountered,  the  array
                            will  also contain an element named "error", which
                            is a string describing the error.

              The path is a directory.
                     In this case, the array contains  one  element  for  each
                     entry in the directory.  If an entry is a file, that ele-
                     ment is as for files, just described.  If the entry is  a
                     directory,   that  element  is  (recursively),  an  array
                     describing the subdirectory.  If FTS_SEEDOT was  provided
                     in  the  flags,  then there will also be an element named
                     "..".  This element will be an array containing the  data
                     as provided by stat().

                     In addition, there will be an element whose index is ".".
                     This element is an array containing the same two or three
                     elements as for a file: "path", "stat", and "error".

       The  fts()  function  returns  0  if there were no errors. Otherwise it
       returns -1.


       The AWK fts() extension does not exactly mimic  the  interface  of  the
       fts(3) routines, choosing instead to provide an interface that is based
       on associative arrays, which should be more comfortable to use from  an
       AWK  program.   This  includes the lack of a comparison function, since
       gawk already provides powerful  array  sorting  facilities.   While  an
       fts_read()-like interface could have been provided, this felt less nat-
       ural than simply creating a multi-dimensional array  to  represent  the
       file hierarchy and its information.

       Nothing  prevents  AWK code from changing the predefined FTS_xx values,
       but doing so may cause strange results  when  the  changed  values  are
       passed to fts().


       There  are  many  more  file-related functions for which AWK interfaces
       would be desirable.


       See test/fts.awk in the gawk distribution for an example.


       GAWK: Effective AWK Programming, fnmatch(3), fork(3), inplace(3),
       ordchr(3), readdir(3), readfile(3), revoutput(3), rwarray(3),

       chdir(2), fts(3), stat(2).


       Arnold Robbins,


       Copyright (C) 2012, 2013, Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  page  provided  the copyright notice and this permission notice
       are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual  page  under  the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that
       the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms  of  a
       permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute translations of this man-
       ual page into another language, under the above conditions for modified
       versions,  except that this permission notice may be stated in a trans-
       lation approved by the Foundation.

Free Software Foundation          Jan 15 2013                   FILEFUNCS(3am)

gawk 4.2.1 - Generated Tue Feb 27 19:18:59 CST 2018
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