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strict(3pm)            Perl Programmers Reference Guide            strict(3pm)




NAME

       strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs


SYNOPSIS

           use strict;

           use strict "vars";
           use strict "refs";
           use strict "subs";

           use strict;
           no strict "vars";


DESCRIPTION

       The "strict" pragma disables certain Perl expressions that could behave
       unexpectedly or are difficult to debug, turning them into errors. The
       effect of this pragma is limited to the current file or scope block.

       If no import list is supplied, all possible restrictions are assumed.
       (This is the safest mode to operate in, but is sometimes too strict for
       casual programming.)  Currently, there are three possible things to be
       strict about:  "subs", "vars", and "refs".

       "strict refs"
             This generates a runtime error if you use symbolic references
             (see perlref).

                 use strict 'refs';
                 $ref = \$foo;
                 print $$ref;        # ok
                 $ref = "foo";
                 print $$ref;        # runtime error; normally ok
                 $file = "STDOUT";
                 print $file "Hi!";  # error; note: no comma after $file

             There is one exception to this rule:

                 $bar = \&{'foo'};
                 &$bar;

             is allowed so that "goto &$AUTOLOAD" would not break under
             stricture.

       "strict vars"
             This generates a compile-time error if you access a variable that
             was neither explicitly declared (using any of "my", "our",
             "state", or "use vars") nor fully qualified.  (Because this is to
             avoid variable suicide problems and subtle dynamic scoping
             issues, a merely "local" variable isn't good enough.)  See "my"
             in perlfunc, "our" in perlfunc, "state" in perlfunc, "local" in
             perlfunc, and vars.

                 use strict 'vars';
                 $X::foo = 1;         # ok, fully qualified
                 my $foo = 10;        # ok, my() var
                 local $baz = 9;      # blows up, $baz not declared before

                 package Cinna;
                 our $bar;                   # Declares $bar in current package
                 $bar = 'HgS';               # ok, global declared via pragma

             The local() generated a compile-time error because you just
             touched a global name without fully qualifying it.

             Because of their special use by sort(), the variables $a and $b
             are exempted from this check.

       "strict subs"
             This disables the poetry optimization, generating a compile-time
             error if you try to use a bareword identifier that's not a
             subroutine, unless it is a simple identifier (no colons) and that
             it appears in curly braces or on the left hand side of the "=>"
             symbol.

                 use strict 'subs';
                 $SIG{PIPE} = Plumber;   # blows up
                 $SIG{PIPE} = "Plumber"; # fine: quoted string is always ok
                 $SIG{PIPE} = \&Plumber; # preferred form

       See "Pragmatic Modules" in perlmodlib.


HISTORY

       "strict 'subs'", with Perl 5.6.1, erroneously permitted to use an
       unquoted compound identifier (e.g. "Foo::Bar") as a hash key (before
       "=>" or inside curlies), but without forcing it always to a literal
       string.

       Starting with Perl 5.8.1 strict is strict about its restrictions: if
       unknown restrictions are used, the strict pragma will abort with

           Unknown 'strict' tag(s) '...'

       As of version 1.04 (Perl 5.10), strict verifies that it is used as
       "strict" to avoid the dreaded Strict trap on case insensitive file
       systems.



perl v5.24.0                      2016-03-05                       strict(3pm)

perl 5.24 - Generated Mon Nov 21 19:21:42 CST 2016
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