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mount_nfs(8)              BSD System Manager's Manual             mount_nfs(8)


NAME

     mount_nfs -- mount NFS file systems


SYNOPSIS

     mount_nfs [-o options] server:/path directory


DESCRIPTION

     The mount_nfs command calls the mount(2) system call to prepare and graft
     a remote NFS file system ( server:/path ) on to the file system tree at
     the point directory.

     This command is expected to be executed by the mount(8) command.  Direct
     use of mount_nfs to mount NFS file systems is strongly discouraged
     because there is little practical benefit of using it instead of
     mount(8).

     For NFS versions that use a separate mount protocol, mount_nfs implements
     the mount protocol as described in RFC 1094, Appendix A and NFS: Network
     File System Version 3 Protocol Specification, RFC 1813, Appendix I.

     By default, mount_nfs will attempt the mount twice before exiting with an
     error.  If the -o bg option is given, it will attempt the mount once and
     then background itself to continue trying another 10,000 times (pausing
     for one minute between attempts).  The option -o retrycnt=<num> can be
     used if a different retry behavior is desired for a mount.

     If the server becomes unresponsive while an NFS file system is mounted,
     any new or outstanding file operations on that file system will hang
     uninterruptibly until the server comes back (or that NFS file system is
     forcibly unmounted).  To modify this default behaviour, see the -o intr
     and -o soft mount options.

     Mount options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma separated
     string of options.  See the mount(8) man page for possible options and
     their meanings.  The following NFS-specific options are also available:

     bg      Retry mount in background.  If an initial attempt to contact the
             server fails, fork off a child to keep trying the mount in the
             background.  Useful for startup scripts where the file system
             mount is not critical to multiuser operation.

     retrycnt=<num>
             Set the retry count for doing the mount to the specified value.
             The default is 1 for foreground mounts and 10,000 for background
             mounts.

     udp     Use UDP transport protocol.

     tcp     Use the TCP transport protocol instead of UDP.  The default is to
             try TCP first, then fall back to UDP if the server doesn't sup-
             port TCP.

     inet    Use only IPv4 addresses.

     inet6   Use only IPv6 addresses.

     proto=<netid>
             Use the transport protocol and address family as specified by the
             given ONC RPC Netid (RFC 5665).  Valid netid values are: tcp (TCP
             over IPv4), udp (UDP over IPv4), tcp6 (TCP over IPv6), and udp6
             (UDP over IPv6).  Note that this option differs from the separate
             tcp and udp options described above in that each netid value
             specifies both a transport protocol and address family (IP ver-
             sion).

     mntudp  Force the mount protocol to use UDP transport, even for TCP NFS
             mounts.  (Necessary for some old BSD servers.)

     mountport=<port-number>
             Connect to the NFS server's mount daemon using the given port
             number.

     port=<port-number>
             Connect to an NFS server at the given port number.

     noconn  Do not connect UDP sockets.  For UDP mount points, do not do a
             connect(2).  This must be used for servers that do not reply to
             requests from the standard NFS port number 2049.  It may also be
             required for servers with more than one IP address if replies
             come from an address other than the one specified in the
             requests.

     resvport
             Use a reserved socket port number.  This is useful for mounting
             servers that require clients to use a reserved port number on the
             mistaken belief that this makes NFS more secure. (For the rare
             case where the client has a trusted root account but untrustwor-
             thy users and the network cables are in secure areas this does
             help, but for normal desktop clients this does not apply.)

     intr    Make the mount interruptible, which implies that file system
             calls that are delayed due to an unresponsive server will fail
             with EINTR when a termination signal is posted for the process.

     soft    Make the mount soft, which means that file system calls will fail
             after retrans round trip timeout intervals.  Note: mounts which
             are both soft and read-only will also have the locallocks mount
             option enabled by default - unless explicitly overridden with a
             lock option (for example, nolocks or nolocallocks ).

     vers=<num>
     nfsvers=<num>
             Set the NFS protocol version number - 2 for NFSv2, 3 for NFSv3
             and 4 for NFSv4.  The default is to try version 3 first, and fall
             back to version 2 if the mount fails.

     nfsv2
     nfsv3
     nfsv4   Deprecated.  Use -o vers=<num> to specify NFS protocol version.

     sec=<mechanism>
             Force a specific security mechanism to be used for the mount,
             where mechanism is one of: krb5p, krb5i, krb5, or sys.  When this
             option is not given the security mechanism will be negotiated
             transparently with the remote server.

     realm=<realm>
             Use the default credential for realm or security domain. For Ker-
             beros realms are usually uppercase. If the realm specified does
             not begin with an ``@'', an ``@'' sign will be prepended to it.
             Note specifying the realm is typically used for automounter maps
             when clients may have multiple credential caches, and tells the
             client what cache to use on the mount.

     principal=<principal>
             Use the specified principal for acquiring credentials for the
             mount.  That principal will be used for all accesses by the
             mounting credential on the mounted file system. Note specifying a
             principal is useful for user initiated command line mounts, where
             the user knows the particular credential to use.


     sprincipal=<server-principal>
             Use the specified server-principal for establishing credentials
             for the mount. That server principal will be use for all mount
             access. If no server principal is specified, then the
             GSS_C_NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE nfs@server is used, where server is
             taken from the mount argument server:/path. Note its rare to use
             this option.

     rsize=<readsize>
             Set the read data size to the specified value.  The default is
             8192 for UDP mounts and 32768 for TCP mounts.  It should normally
             be a power of 2 greater than or equal to 1024.  Values greater
             than 4096 should be multiples of 4096.  It may need to be lowered
             for UDP mounts when the ``fragments dropped due to timeout''
             value is getting large while actively using a mount point.  (Use
             netstat(1) with the -s option to see what the ``fragments dropped
             due to timeout'' value is.)

     wsize=<writesize>
             Set the write data size to the specified value.  Ditto the com-
             ments w.r.t. the rsize option, but using the ``fragments dropped
             due to timeout'' value on the server instead of the client.  Note
             that both the rsize and wsize options should only be used as a
             last ditch effort at improving performance when mounting servers
             that do not support TCP mounts.

     rwsize=<size>
             Set both the read data size and write data size to the specified
             value.

     dsize=<readdirsize>
             Set the directory read size to the specified value. The value
             should normally be a multiple of DIRBLKSIZ that is <= the read
             size for the mount.  The default is 8192 for UDP mounts and 32768
             for TCP mounts.

     readahead=<maxreadahead>
             Set the maximum read-ahead count to the specified value.  The
             default is 16.  This may be in the range of 0 - 128, and deter-
             mines how many blocks will be read ahead when a large file is
             being read sequentially.  Trying larger values for this is sug-
             gested for mounts with a large bandwidth * delay product.

     rdirplus
             Used with NFS v3/v4 to specify that directory read operations
             should retrieve additional information about each entry (e.g. use
             the NFSv3 ReaddirPlus RPC).  This option typically reduces RPC
             traffic for cases such as directory listings that use or display
             basic attributes (e.g.  ``ls -F'' and ``find . -type f'' ).  Note
             that the long directory listing format case (i.e.  ``ls -l'' )
             may not be helped much when the file system does not natively
             support extended attributes.  Older implementations tended to
             flood the vnode and name caches with prefetched entries which may
             not be referenced.  The current implementation avoids creating
             those entries until they are referenced.  Try this option and see
             whether performance improves or degrades. Probably most useful
             for client to server network interconnects with a large bandwidth
             times delay product.

     acregmin=<seconds>
     acregmax=<seconds>
     acdirmin=<seconds>
     acdirmax=<seconds>
             These options set the minimum and maximum attribute cache time-
             outs for directories and "regular" (non-directory) files.  The
             default minimum is 5 seconds and the default maximum is 60 sec-
             onds.  Setting both the minimum and maximum to zero will disable
             attribute caching.  The algorithm to calculate the timeout is
             based on the age of the file or directory.  The older it is, the
             longer the attribute cache is considered valid, subject to the
             limits above.  Note that the effectiveness of this algorithm
             depends on how well the clocks on the client and server are syn-
             chronized.

     actimeo=<seconds>
             Set all attribute cache timeouts to the same value.

     noac    Disable attribute caching.  Equivalent to setting actimeo to 0.

     nonegnamecache
             Disable negative name caching.

     locallocks
             Perform all file locking operations locally on the NFS client (in
             the VFS layer) instead of on the NFS server.  This option can
             provide file locking support on an NFS file system for which the
             server does not support file locking.  However, because the file
             locking is only performed on the client, the NFS server and other
             NFS clients will have no knowledge of the locks.  Note: mounts
             which are both soft and read-only will also have the locallocks
             mount option enabled by default - unless explicitly overridden
             with a lock option (for example, nolocks or nolocallocks ).

     nolocks
     nolockd
     nolock
     nonlm   Do not support NFS file locking operations.  Any attempt to per-
             form file locking operations on this mount will return the error
             ENOTSUP regardless of whether or not the NFS server supports NFS
             file locking.

     noquota
             Do not support file system quota operations that would normally
             be serviced by using the RQUOTA protocol.  Any attempt to perform
             quota operations on this mount will return the error ENOTSUP
             regardless of whether or not the NFS server supports the RQUOTA
             service.

     maxgroups=<num>
             Set the maximum size of the group list for the credentials to the
             specified value.  This should be used for mounts on old servers
             that cannot handle a group list size of 16, as specified in RFC
             1057.  Try 8, if users in a lot of groups cannot get a response
             from the mount point.

     dumbtimer
             Turn off the dynamic retransmit timeout estimator.  This may be
             useful for UDP mounts that exhibit high retry rates, since it is
             possible that the dynamically estimated timeout interval is too
             short.

     timeo=<timeout>
             Set the initial retransmit timeout to the specified value.  The
             default is 1 second.  May be useful for fine tuning UDP mounts
             over internetworks with high packet loss rates or an overloaded
             server.  Try increasing the interval if nfsstat(1) shows high
             retransmit rates while the file system is active or reducing the
             value if there is a low retransmit rate but long response delay
             observed.  (Normally, the dumbtimer option should be specified
             when using this option to manually tune the timeout interval.)

     retrans=<count>
             Set the retransmit timeout count for soft mounts to the specified
             value.  The default value is 10.

     deadtimeout=<timeout>
             If the mount is still unresponsive timeout seconds after it is
             initially reported unresponsive, then mark the mount as dead so
             that it will be forcibly unmounted.  Note: mounts which are both
             soft and read-only will also have the deadtimeout mount option
             set to 60 seconds.  This can be explicitly overridden by setting
             deadtimeout=0.

     mutejukebox
             When NFS requests repeatedly get jukebox errors (NFS3ERR_JUKEBOX,
             NFS4ERR_DELAY) from the server the NFS file system is reported as
             being unresponsive.  Use of this option will prevent the file
             system from being included in the list of unresponsive file sys-
             tems that would be included in a dialog presented to the user.
             This option may be useful when a file system is expected to get
             such errors during normal operation.  For example, when it's
             backed by a hierarchical storage management system.

     async   Assume that unstable write requests have actually been committed
             to stable storage on the server, and thus will not require
             resending in the event that the server crashes.  Use of this
             option may improve performance but only at the risk of data loss
             if the server crashes.  Note: this mount option will only be hon-
             ored if the nfs.client.allow_async option in nfs.conf(5) is also
             enabled.

     sync    Perform I/O requests (specifically, write requests) syn-
             chronously.  The operation will not return until a response is
             received from the server.  (The default, nosync, behavior is to
             return once the I/O has been queued up.)

     nocallback
             For NFSv4 mounts, don't support callback requests from the
             server.  This should effectively disable features that require
             callback requests such as delegations.

     nonamedattr
             For NFSv4 mounts, don't support named attributes even if the
             server does.  By default, if the server appears to support named
             attributes, they will be used to store extended attributes and
             named streams (e.g. FinderInfo and resource forks).

     noacl   For NFSv4 mounts, don't support ACLs even if the server does.
             ACLs are currently disabled by default to avoid issues with the
             way ACLs and modes are handled differently on other operating
             systems.  This may be overriden by specifying the acl option.

     aclonly
             For NFSv4 mounts, only support ACLs; do not support the mode
             attribute.  (Any mode attribute values returned will have all
             permission bits set - regardless of the value of any ACL or
             access mode stored in the file system.)  This option overrides
             the noacl option.

     nfc     Convert name strings to Unicode Normalization Form C (NFC) when
             sending them to the NFS server.  This option may be used to
             improve interoperability with NFS clients and servers that typi-
             cally use names in the NFC form.

     nfs.conf(5) can be used to configure some NFS client options.  In partic-
     ular, nfs.client.mount.options can be used to specify default mount
     options.  This can be useful in situations where it is not easy to con-
     figure the command-line options.  Some NFS client options in nfs.conf(5)
     correspond to kernel configuration values which will get set by mount_nfs
     when performing a mount.  To update these values without performing a
     mount, use the command: mount_nfs configupdate.


COMPATIBILITY

     The following mount_nfs command line flags have equivalent -o option
     forms (shown in parentheses) and their use is strongly discouraged.
     These command line flags are deprecated and the -o option forms should be
     used instead.

     -2 (vers=2), -3 (vers=3), -4 (vers=4), -L (nolocks), -P (resvport), -T
     (tcp), -U (mntudp), -b (bg), -c (noconn), -d (dumbtimer), -i (intr), -l
     (rdirplus), -s (soft), -I readdirsize (dsize=#), -R retrycnt
     (retrycnt=#), -a maxreadahead (readahead=#), -g maxgroups (maxgroups=#),
     -r readsize (rsize=#), -t timeout (timeo=#), -w writesize (wsize=#), -x
     retrans (retrans=#).


EXAMPLES

     The simplest way to invoke mount_nfs is with a command like:

           mount remotehost:/filesystem /localmountpoint

     or:

           mount -t nfs remotehost:/filesystem /localmountpoint


PERFORMANCE

     As can be derived from the comments accompanying the options, performance
     tuning of NFS can be a non-trivial task.  Here are some common points to
     watch:

     o       Use of the sync option will probably have a detrimental affect on
             performance.  Its use is discouraged as it provides little bene-
             fit.

     o       Use of the async option may improve performance, but only at the
             risk of losing data if the server crashes because the client will
             not be making sure that all data is committed to stable storage
             on the server.

     o       Increasing the read and write size with the rsize and wsize
             options respectively will increase throughput if the network
             interface can handle the larger packet sizes.

             The default read and write sizes are 8K when using UDP, and 32K
             when using TCP.  Values over 16K are only supported for TCP,
             where 64K is the maximum.

             Any value over 32K is unlikely to get you more performance,
             unless you have a very fast network.

     o       If the network interface cannot handle larger packet sizes or a
             long train of back to back packets, you may see low performance
             figures or even temporary hangups during NFS activity.

             This can especially happen with lossy network connections (e.g.
             wireless networks) which can lead to a lot of dropped packets.

             In this case, decreasing the read and write size, using TCP, or a
             combination of both will usually lead to better throughput.

     o       For connections that are not on the same LAN, and/or may experi-
             ence packet loss, using TCP is strongly recommended.


ERRORS

     Some common problems with mount_nfs can be difficult for first time users
     to understand.

           mount_nfs: can't access /foo: Permission denied

     This message means that the remote host is either not exporting the file
     system you requested or is not exporting it to your host.  If you believe
     the remote host is indeed exporting a file system to you, make sure the
     exports(5) file is exporting the proper directories.  The program
     showmount(8) can be used to see a server's exports list.  The command
     ``showmount -e remotehostname'' will display what file systems the remote
     host is exporting.

     A common mistake is that mountd(8) will not export a file system with the
     -alldirs option, unless it is a mount point on the exporting host.  It is
     not possible to remotely mount a subdirectory of an exported mount,
     unless it is exported with the -alldirs option.

     The following error:

           NFS Portmap: RPC: Program not registered

     means that the remote host is not running nfsd(8).  or mountd(8).  The
     program rpcinfo(8) can be used to determine if the remote host is running
     nfsd and mountd by issuing the command:

           rpcinfo -p remotehostname

     If the remote host is running nfsd, mountd, rpc.statd, and rpc.lockd it
     would display:

           program vers proto   port
            100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
            100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
            100005    1   udp    950  mountd
            100005    3   udp    950  mountd
            100005    1   tcp    884  mountd
            100005    3   tcp    884  mountd
            100003    2   udp   2049  nfs
            100003    3   udp   2049  nfs
            100003    2   tcp   2049  nfs
            100003    3   tcp   2049  nfs
            100024    1   udp    644  status
            100024    1   tcp    918  status
            100021    0   udp    630  nlockmgr
            100021    1   udp    630  nlockmgr
            100021    3   udp    630  nlockmgr
            100021    4   udp    630  nlockmgr
            100021    0   tcp    917  nlockmgr
            100021    1   tcp    917  nlockmgr
            100021    3   tcp    917  nlockmgr
            100021    4   tcp    917  nlockmgr

     The error:

           mount_nfs: can't resolve host

     indicates that mount_nfs could not resolve the name of the remote host.


SEE ALSO

     mount(2), unmount(2), mount(8), umount(8), nfsstat(1), netstat(1),
     rpcinfo(8), showmount(8), automount(8), nfs.conf(5)


CAVEATS

     An NFS server shouldn't loopback-mount its own exported file systems
     because it's fundamentally prone to deadlock.

BSD                            February 28, 2010                           BSD

Mac OS X 10.9 - Generated Fri Oct 18 06:12:03 CDT 2013
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