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6 File format

Perfection is reached, not when there is no longer anything to add, but
when there is no longer anything to take away.
-- Antoine de Saint-Exupery

   In the diagram below, a box like this:

|   | <-- the vertical bars might be missing

   represents one byte; a box like this:

|              |

   represents a variable number of bytes.

   A lzip file consists of one or more independent "members" (compressed
data sets). The members simply appear one after another in the file, with no
additional information before, between, or after them. Each member can
encode in compressed form up to 16 EiB - 1 byte of uncompressed data. The
size of a multimember file is unlimited.

   Each member has the following structure:

| ID string | VN | DS | LZMA stream | CRC32 |   Data size   |  Member size  |

   All multibyte values are stored in little endian order.

'ID string (the "magic" bytes)'
     A four byte string, identifying the lzip format, with the value "LZIP"
     (0x4C, 0x5A, 0x49, 0x50).

'VN (version number, 1 byte)'
     Just in case something needs to be modified in the future. 1 for now.

'DS (coded dictionary size, 1 byte)'
     The dictionary size is calculated by taking a power of 2 (the base
     size) and subtracting from it a fraction between 0/16 and 7/16 of the
     base size.
     Bits 4-0 contain the base 2 logarithm of the base size (12 to 29).
     Bits 7-5 contain the numerator of the fraction (0 to 7) to subtract
     from the base size to obtain the dictionary size.
     Example: 0xD3 = 2^19 - 6 * 2^15 = 512 KiB - 6 * 32 KiB = 320 KiB
     Valid values for dictionary size range from 4 KiB to 512 MiB.

'LZMA stream'
     The LZMA stream, finished by an "End Of Stream" marker. Uses default
     values for encoder properties. *Note Stream format::, for a complete

'CRC32 (4 bytes)'
     Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the original uncompressed data.

'Data size (8 bytes)'
     Size of the original uncompressed data.

'Member size (8 bytes)'
     Total size of the member, including header and trailer. This field acts
     as a distributed index, improves the checking of stream integrity, and
     facilitates the safe recovery of undamaged members from multimember
     files. Lzip limits the member size to 2 PiB to prevent the data size
     field from overflowing.

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