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tar(1)                                tar                               tar(1)


       tar - The GNU version of the tar archiving utility


       tar <operation> [options]

       [-]A --catenate --concatenate
       [-]c --create
       [-]d --diff --compare
       [-]r --append
       [-]t --list
       [-]u --update
       [-]x --extract --get

       Common Options:
       -C, --directory DIR
       -f, --file F
       -j, --bzip2
       -p, --preserve-permissions
       -v, --verbose
       -z, --gzip

       All Options:
       [  --atime-preserve  ]  [  -b, --blocking-factor N ] [ -B, --read-full-
       records ] [ --backup BACKUP-TYPE ] [ --block-compress ] [ -C,  --direc-
       tory DIR ] [ --check-links ] [ --checkpoint ] [ -f, --file [HOSTNAME:]F
       ] [ -F, --info-script F --new-volume-script F ] [ --force-local    ]  [
       --format  FORMAT ] [ -g, --listed-incremental F ] [ -G, --incremental ]
       [ --group GROUP ] [ -h, --dereference ] [ --help ] [ -i, --ignore-zeros
       ]  [  --ignore-case  ] [ --ignore-failed-read ] [ --index-file FILE ] [
       -j, --bzip2 ] [ -k, --keep-old-files ] [  -K,  --starting-file  F  ]  [
       --keep-newer-files  ] [ -l, --one-file-system ] [ -L, --tape-length N ]
       [ -m, --touch, --modification-time ] [ -M, --multi-volume  ]  [  --mode
       PERMISSIONS  ]  [ -N, --after-date DATE, --newer DATE ] [ --newer-mtime
       DATE ] [ --no-anchored ] [ --no-ignore-case  ]  [  --no-recursion  ]  [
       --no-same-permissions ] [ --no-wildcards ] [ --no-wildcards-match-slash
       ] [ --null     ] [ --numeric-owner ] [ -o,  --old-archive,  --portabil-
       ity,  --no-same-owner  ]  [  -O,  --to-stdout  ] [ --occurrence NUM ] [
       --overwrite ] [ --overwrite-dir ] [ --owner USER ] [ -p, --same-permis-
       sions, --preserve-permissions ] [ -P, --absolute-names ] [ --pax-option
       KEYWORD-LIST ] [ --posix ] [ --preserve ]  [  -R,  --block-number  ]  [
       --record-size SIZE ] [ --recursion ] [ --recursive-unlink ] [ --remove-
       files ] [ --rmt-command CMD ] [ --rsh-command CMD ] [ -s, --same-order,
       --preserve-order  ] [ -S, --sparse ] [ --same-owner ] [ --show-defaults
       ] [ --show-omitted-dirs ]  [  --strip-components  NUMBER,  --strip-path
       NUMBER  (1) ] [ --suffix SUFFIX ] [ -T, --files-from F ] [ --totals   ]
       [ -U, --unlink-first ] [ --use-compress-program PROG ] [ --utc ] [  -v,
       --verbose  ]  [  -V, --label NAME ] [ --version  ] [ --volno-file F ] [
       -w, --interactive, --confirmation ] [ -W, --verify ] [ --wildcards ]  [
       --wildcards-match-slash  ]  [  --exclude PATTERN ] [ -X, --exclude-from
       FILE ] [  -Z,  --compress,  --uncompress  ]  [  -z,  --gzip,  --gunzip,
       --ungzip ] [ -[0-7][lmh] ]

       (1) tar-1.14 uses --strip-path, tar-1.14.90+ uses --strip-components


       This manual page documents the GNU version of tar, an archiving program
       designed to store and extract files from an archive  file  known  as  a
       tarfile.   A  tarfile  may be made on a tape drive, however, it is also
       common to write a tarfile to a normal file.  The first argument to  tar
       must be one of the options Acdrtux, followed by any optional functions.
       The final arguments to tar are the names of the  files  or  directories
       which  should  be archived.  The use of a directory name always implies
       that the subdirectories below should be included in the archive.


       tar -xvf foo.tar
              verbosely extract foo.tar

       tar -xzf foo.tar.gz
              extract gzipped foo.tar.gz

       tar -cjf foo.tar.bz2 bar/
              create  bzipped  tar  archive  of  the  directory   bar   called

       tar -xjf foo.tar.bz2 -C bar/
              extract bzipped foo.tar.bz2 after changing directory to bar

       tar -xzf foo.tar.gz blah.txt
              extract the file blah.txt from foo.tar.bz2


       One of the following options must be used:

       -A, --catenate, --concatenate
              append tar files to an archive

       -c, --create
              create a new archive

       -d, --diff, --compare
              find differences between archive and file system

       -r, --append
              append files to the end of an archive

       -t, --list
              list the contents of an archive

       -u, --update
              only append files that are newer than the existing in archive

       -x, --extract, --get
              extract files from an archive

              delete from the archive (not for use on mag tapes!)


       -C, --directory DIR
              change to directory DIR

       -f, --file [HOSTNAME:]F
              use archive file or device F (default "-", meaning stdin/stdout)

       -j, --bzip2
              filter archive through bzip2, use to decompress .bz2 files

       -p, --preserve-permissions
              extract all protection information

       -v, --verbose
              verbosely list files processed

       -z, --gzip, --ungzip
              filter the archive through gzip


              don't change access times on dumped files

       -b, --blocking-factor N
              block size of Nx512 bytes (default N=20)

       -B, --read-full-blocks
              reblock as we read (for reading 4.2BSD pipes)

       --backup BACKUP-TYPE
              backup files instead of deleting them using  BACKUP-TYPE  simple
              or numbered

              block the output of compression program for tapes

       -C, --directory DIR
              change to directory DIR

              warn  if number of hard links to the file on the filesystem mis-
              match the number of links recorded in the archive

              print directory names while reading the archive

       -f, --file [HOSTNAME:]F
              use archive file or device F (default "-", meaning stdin/stdout)

       -F, --info-script F --new-volume-script F
              run script at end of each tape (implies --multi-volume)

              archive file is local even if has a colon

       --format FORMAT
              selects output archive format
              v7 - Unix V7
              oldgnu - GNU tar <=1.12
              gnu - GNU tar 1.13
              ustar - POSIX.1-1988
              posix - POSIX.1-2001

       -g, --listed-incremental F
              create/list/extract new GNU-format incremental backup

       -G, --incremental
              create/list/extract old GNU-format incremental backup

       -h, --dereference
              don't dump symlinks; dump the files they point to

       --help like this manpage, but not as cool

       -i, --ignore-zeros
              ignore blocks of zeros in archive (normally mean EOF)

              ignore case when excluding files

              don't exit with non-zero status on unreadable files

       --index-file FILE
              send verbose output to FILE instead of stdout

       -j, --bzip2
              filter archive through bzip2, use to decompress .bz2 files

       -k, --keep-old-files
              keep existing files; don't overwrite them from archive

       -K, --starting-file F
              begin at file F in the archive

              do not overwrite files which are newer than the archive

       -l, --one-file-system
              stay in local file system when creating an archive

       -L, --tape-length N
              change tapes after writing N*1024 bytes

       -m, --touch, --modification-time
              don't extract file modified time

       -M, --multi-volume
              create/list/extract multi-volume archive

       --mode PERMISSIONS
              apply PERMISSIONS while adding files (see chmod(1))

       -N, --after-date DATE, --newer DATE
              only store files newer than DATE

       --newer-mtime DATE
              like --newer, but with a DATE

              match any subsequenceof the name's components with --exclude

              use case-sensitive matching with --exclude

              don't recurse into directories

              apply  user's  umask  when  extracting files instead of recorded

              don't use wildcards with --exclude

              wildcards do not match slashes (/) with --exclude

       --null --files-from reads null-terminated names, disable --directory

              always use numbers for user/group names

       -o, --old-archive, --portability
              like --format=v7; -o exhibits this behavior when creating an ar-
              chive (deprecated behavior)

       -o, --no-same-owner
              do not attempt to restore ownership when extracting; -o exhibits
              this behavior when extracting an archive

       -O, --to-stdout
              extract files to standard output

       --occurrence NUM
              process only NUM occurrences  of  each  named  file;  used  with
              --delete, --diff, --extract, or --list

              overwrite existing files and directory metadata when extracting

              overwrite directory metadata when extracting

       --owner USER
              change owner of extraced files to USER

       -p, --same-permissions, --preserve-permissions
              extract all protection information

       -P, --absolute-names
              don't strip leading `/'s from file names

       --pax-option KEYWORD-LIST
              used  only with POSIX.1-2001 archives to modify the way tar han-
              dles extended header keywords

              like --format=posix

              like --preserve-permissions --same-order

       -R, --record-number
              show record number within archive with each message

       --record-size SIZE
              use SIZE bytes per record when accessing archives

              recurse into directories

              remove existing directories before extracting directories of the
              same name

              remove files after adding them to the archive

       --rmt-command CMD
              use CMD instead of the default /usr/sbin/rmt

       --rsh-command CMD
              use remote CMD instead of rsh(1)

       -s, --same-order, --preserve-order
              list of names to extract is sorted to match archive

       -S, --sparse
              handle sparse files efficiently

              create extracted files with the same ownership

              display the default options used by tar

              print directories tar skips while operating on an archive

       --strip-components NUMBER, --strip-path NUMBER
              strip  NUMBER  of  leading  components  from  file  names before

              (1) tar-1.14 uses --strip-path, tar-1.14.90+ uses --strip-compo-

       --suffix SUFFIX
              use SUFFIX instead of default '~' when backing up files

       -T, --files-from F
              get names to extract or create from file F

              print total bytes written with --create

       -U, --unlink-first
              remove existing files before extracting files of the same name

       --use-compress-program PROG
              access the archive through PROG which is generally a compression

       --utc  display file modification dates in UTC

       -v, --verbose
              verbosely list files processed

       -V, --label NAME
              create archive with volume name NAME

              print tar program version number

       --volno-file F
              keep track of which volume of a multi-volume archive its working
              in FILE; used with --multi-volume

       -w, --interactive, --confirmation
              ask for confirmation for every action

       -W, --verify
              attempt to verify the archive after writing it

              use wildcards with --exclude

              wildcards match slashes (/) with --exclude

       --exclude PATTERN
              exclude files based upon PATTERN

       -X, --exclude-from FILE
              exclude files listed in FILE

       -Z, --compress, --uncompress
              filter the archive through compress

       -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip
              filter the archive through gzip

       --use-compress-program PROG
              filter the archive through PROG (which must accept -d)

              specify drive and density


       The  GNU  folks, in general, abhor man pages, and create info documents
       instead.  The maintainer of tar falls into this  category.   Thus  this
       man page may not be complete, nor current.


       The  full  documentation for tar is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and tar programs are properly installed at your site, the com-

              info tar

       should give you access to the complete manual.


       Debian Linux
       Mike Frysinger <>

GNU                                Oct 2004                             tar(1)

Mac OS X 10.5 - Generated Sun Oct 28 21:03:05 EDT 2007
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