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troff(1)                    General Commands Manual                   troff(1)


Name

       troff - GNU roff typesetter and document formatter


Synopsis

       troff [-abcCEiRUz] [-d ctext] [-d string=text] [-f font-family]
             [-F font-directory] [-I inclusion-directory] [-m macro-package]
             [-M macro-directory] [-n page-number] [-o page-list]
             [-r cnumeric-expression] [-r register=numeric-expression]
             [-T output-device] [-w warning-category] [-W warning-category]
             [file ...]

       troff --help

       troff -v
       troff --version


Description

       GNU troff transforms groff(7) language input into the device-
       independent output format described in groff_out(5); troff is thus the
       heart of the GNU roff document formatting system.  If no file operands
       are given on the command line, or if file is "-", the standard input
       stream is read.

       GNU troff is functionally compatible with the AT&T troff typesetter and
       features numerous extensions.  Many people prefer to use the groff(1)
       command, a front end which also runs preprocessors and output drivers
       in the appropriate order and with appropriate options.


Options

       -h and --help display a usage message, while -v and --version show
       version information; all exit afterward.

       -a     Generate a plain text approximation of the typeset output.  The
              read-only register .A is set to 1.  This option produces a sort
              of abstract preview of the formatted output.

              o Page breaks are marked by a phrase in angle brackets; for
                example, "<beginning of page>".

              o Lines are broken where they would be in the formatted output.

              o A horizontal motion of any size is represented as one space.
                Adjacent horizontal motions are not combined.  Inter-sentence
                space nodes (those arising from the second argument to the .ss
                request) are not represented.

              o Vertical motions are not represented.

              o Special characters are rendered in angle brackets; for
                example, the default soft hyphen character appears as "<hy>".

              The above description should not be considered a specification;
              the details of -a output are subject to change.

       -b     Write a backtrace reporting the state of troff's input parser to
              the standard error stream with each diagnostic message.  The
              line numbers given in the backtrace might not always be correct,
              because troff's idea of line numbers can be confused by requests
              that append to macros.

       -c     Start with color output disabled.

       -C     Enable AT&T troff compatibility mode; implies -c.  See
              groff_diff(7).

       -d ctext
       -d string=text
              Define roff string c or string as text.  c must be one
              character; string can be of arbitrary length.  Such string
              assignments happen before any macro file is loaded, including
              the startup file.  Due to getopt_long(3) limitations, c cannot
              be, and string cannot contain, an equals sign, even though that
              is a valid character in a roff identifier.

       -E     Inhibit troff error messages; implies -Ww.  This option does not
              suppress messages sent to the standard error stream by documents
              or macro packages using tm or related requests.

       -f fam Use fam as the default font family.

       -F dir Search in directory dir for the selected output device's
              directory of device and font description files.  See the
              description of GROFF_FONT_PATH in section "Environment" below
              for the default search locations and ordering.

       -i     Read the standard input stream after all named input files have
              been processed.

       -I dir Search the directory dir for files (those named on the command
              line; in psbb, so, and soquiet requests; and in "\X'ps:
              import'", "\X'ps: file'", and "\X'pdf: pdfpic'" device control
              escape sequences).  -I may be specified more than once; each dir
              is searched in the given order.  To search the current working
              directory before others, add "-I ." at the desired place; it is
              otherwise searched last.  -I works similarly to, and is named
              for, the "include" option of Unix C compilers.

       -m name
              Process the file name.tmac prior to any input files.  If not
              found, tmac.name is attempted.  name (in both arrangements) is
              presumed to be a macro file; see the description of
              GROFF_TMAC_PATH in section "Environment" below for the default
              search locations and ordering.

       -M dir Search directory dir for macro files.  See the description of
              GROFF_TMAC_PATH in section "Environment" below for the default
              search locations and ordering.

       -n num Begin numbering pages at num.  The default is 1.

       -o list
              Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
              inclusive page ranges; n means page n, m-n means every page
              between m and n, -n means every page up to n, and n- means every
              page from n on.  troff stops processing and exits after
              formatting the last page enumerated in list.

       -r cnumeric-expression
       -r register=numeric-expression
              Define roff register c or register as numeric-expression.
              c must be a one-character name; register can be of arbitrary
              length.  Such register assignments happen before any macro file
              is loaded, including the startup file.  Due to getopt_long(3)
              limitations, c cannot be, and register cannot contain, an equals
              sign, even though that is a valid character in a roff
              identifier.

       -R     Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -T dev Prepare output for device dev.  The default is ps; see groff(1).

       -U     Operate in unsafe mode, enabling the open, opena, pi, pso, and
              sy requests, which are disabled by default because they allow an
              untrusted input document to write to arbitrary file names and
              run arbitrary commands.  This option also adds the current
              directory to the macro package search path; see the -m and -M
              options above.

       -w name
       -W name
              Enable (-w) or inhibit (-W) warnings in category name.  See
              section "Warnings" below.

       -z     Suppress formatted output.


Warnings

       Warning diagnostics emitted by troff are divided into named, numbered
       categories.  The name associated with each warning category is used by
       the -w and -W options.  Each category is also assigned a power of two;
       the sum of enabled category codes is used by the warn request and the
       .warn register.  Warnings of each category are produced under the
       following circumstances.

                +----------------------+-----------------------------+
                |Bit   Code   Category | Bit    Code      Category   |
                +----------------------+-----------------------------+
                |  0      1   char     |  10      1024   reg         |
                |  1      2   number   |  11      2048   tab         |
                |  2      4   break    |  12      4096   right-brace |
                |  3      8   delim    |  13      8192   missing     |
                |  4     16   el       |  14     16384   input       |
                |  5     32   scale    |  15     32768   escape      |
                |  6     64   range    |  16     65536   space       |
                |  7    128   syntax   |  17    131072   font        |
                |  8    256   di       |  18    262144   ig          |
                |  9    512   mac      |  19    524288   color       |
                |                      |  20   1048576   file        |
                +----------------------+-----------------------------+

       break            4
                        A filled output line could not be broken such that its
                        length was less than the output line length \n[.l].
                        This category is enabled by default.

       char             1
                        No mounted font defines a glyph for the requested
                        character.  This category is enabled by default.

       color            524288
                        An undefined color name was selected, an attempt was
                        made to define a color using an unrecognized color
                        space, an invalid component in a color definition was
                        encountered, or an attempt was made to redefine a
                        default color.

       delim            8
                        The closing delimiter in an escape sequence was
                        missing or mismatched.

       di               256
                        A di, da, box, or boxa request was invoked without an
                        argument when there was no current diversion.

       el               16
                        The el request was encountered with no prior
                        corresponding ie request.

       escape           32768
                        An unsupported escape sequence was encountered.

       file             1048576
                        An attempt was made to load a file that does not
                        exist.  This category is enabled by default.

       font             131072
                        A non-existent font was selected, or the selection was
                        ignored because a font selection escape sequence was
                        used after the output line continuation escape
                        sequence on an input line.  This category is enabled
                        by default.

       ig               262144
                        An invalid escape sequence occurred in input ignored
                        using the ig request.  This warning category diagnoses
                        a condition that is an error when it occurs in non-
                        ignored input.

       input            16384
                        An invalid character occurred on the input stream.

       mac              512
                        An undefined string, macro, or diversion was used.
                        When such an object is dereferenced, an empty one of
                        that name is automatically created.  So, unless it is
                        later deleted, at most one warning is given for each.

                        This warning is also emitted upon an attempt to move
                        an unplanted trap macro.  In such cases, the unplanted
                        macro is not dereferenced, so it is not created if it
                        does not exist.

       missing          8192
                        A request was invoked with a mandatory argument
                        absent.

       number           2
                        An invalid numeric expression was encountered.  This
                        category is enabled by default.

       range            64
                        A numeric expression was out of range for its context.

       reg              1024
                        An undefined register was used.  When an undefined
                        register is dereferenced, it is automatically defined
                        with a value of 0.  So, unless it is later deleted, at
                        most one warning is given for each.

       right-brace      4096
                        A right brace escape sequence \} was encountered where
                        a number was expected.

       scale            32
                        A scaling unit inappropriate to its context was used
                        in a numeric expression.

       space            65536
                        A space was missing between a request or macro and its
                        argument.  This warning is produced when an undefined
                        name longer than two characters is encountered and the
                        first two characters of the name constitute a defined
                        name.  No request is invoked, no macro called, and an
                        empty macro is not defined.  This category is enabled
                        by default.  It never occurs in compatibility mode.

       syntax           128
                        A self-contradictory hyphenation mode was requested;
                        an empty or incomplete numeric expression was
                        encountered; an operand to a numeric operator was
                        missing; an attempt was made to define a recursive,
                        empty, or nonsensical character class; or a groff
                        extension conditional expression operator was used
                        while in compatibility mode.

       tab              2048
                        A tab character was encountered where a number was
                        expected, or appeared in an unquoted macro argument.

       Two warning names group other warning categories for convenience.

       all    All warning categories except di, mac, and reg.  This shorthand
              is intended to produce all warnings that are useful with macro
              packages and documents written for AT&T troff and its
              descendants, which have less fastidious diagnostics than GNU
              troff.

       w      All warning categories.  Authors of documents and macro packages
              targeting groff are encouraged to use this setting.


Environment

       GROFF_FONT_PATH and GROFF_TMAC_PATH each accept a search path of
       directories; that is, a list of directory names separated by the
       system's path component separator character.  On Unix systems, this
       character is a colon (:); on Windows systems, it is a semicolon (;).

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
              A list of directories in which to seek the selected output
              device's directory of device and font description files.  troff
              will scan directories given as arguments to any specified -F
              options before these, then in a site-specific directory
              (/opt/local/share/groff/site-font), a standard location
              (/opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/font), and a compatibility
              directory (/usr/lib/font) after them.

       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
              A list of directories in which to search for macro files.  troff
              will scan directories given as arguments to any specified -M
              options before these, then the current directory (only if in
              unsafe mode), the user's home directory, a site-specific
              directory (/opt/local/share/groff/site-tmac), and a standard
              location (/opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/tmac) after them.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
              Set the default output device.  If empty or not set, ps is used.
              The -T option overrides GROFF_TYPESETTER.

       SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH
              A timestamp (expressed as seconds since the Unix epoch) to use
              as the output creation timestamp in place of the current time.
              The time is converted to human-readable form using localtime(3)
              when the formatter starts up and stored in registers usable by
              documents and macro packages.

       TZ     The timezone to use when converting the current time (or value
              of SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH) to human-readable form; see tzset(3).


Files

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/tmac/troffrc
              is an initialization macro file loaded before any macro packages
              specified with -m options.

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/tmac/troffrc-end
              is an initialization macro file loaded after all macro packages
              specified with -m options.

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/tmac/name.tmac
              are macro files distributed with groff.

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/font/devname/DESC
              describes the output device name.

       /opt/local/share/groff/1.23.0/font/devname/F
              describes the font F of device name.

       troffrc and troffrc-end are sought neither in the current nor the home
       directory by default for security reasons, even if the -U option is
       specified.  Use the -M command-line option or the GROFF_TMAC_PATH
       environment variable to add these directories to the search path if
       necessary.


Authors

       The GNU version of troff was originally written by James Clark; he also
       wrote the original version of this document, which was updated by
       Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>, Bernd Warken <groff-bernd.warken-72@web
       .de>, and G. Branden Robinson <g.branden.robinson@gmail.com>.


See also

       Groff: The GNU Implementation of troff, by Trent A. Fisher and Werner
       Lemberg, is the primary groff manual.  You can browse it interactively
       with "info groff".

       groff(1)
              offers an overview of the GNU roff system and describes its
              front end executable.

       groff(7)
              details the groff language, including a short but complete
              reference of all predefined requests, registers, and escape
              sequences.

       groff_char(7)
              explains the syntax of groff special character escape sequences,
              and lists all special characters predefined by the language.

       groff_diff(7)
              enumerates the differences between AT&T device-independent troff
              and groff.

       groff_font(5)
              covers the format of groff device and font description files.

       groff_out(5)
              describes the format of troff's output.

       groff_tmac(5)
              includes information about macro files that ship with groff.

       roff(7)
              supplies background on roff systems in general, including
              pointers to further related documentation.

groff 1.23.0                      2 July 2023                         troff(1)

groff 1.23.0 - Generated Sat Dec 23 08:49:48 CST 2023
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