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       ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile


         use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

             NAME              => "Foo::Bar",
             VERSION_FROM      => "lib/Foo/",


       This utility is designed to write a Makefile for an extension module
       from a Makefile.PL. It is based on the Makefile.SH model provided by
       Andy Dougherty and the perl5-porters.

       It splits the task of generating the Makefile into several subroutines
       that can be individually overridden.  Each subroutine returns the text
       it wishes to have written to the Makefile.

       As there are various Make programs with incompatible syntax, which use
       operating system shells, again with incompatible syntax, it is
       important for users of this module to know which flavour of Make a
       Makefile has been written for so they'll use the correct one and won't
       have to face the possibly bewildering errors resulting from using the
       wrong one.

       On POSIX systems, that program will likely be GNU Make; on Microsoft
       Windows, it will be either Microsoft NMake, DMake or GNU Make.  See the
       section on the "MAKE" parameter for details.

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker (EUMM) is object oriented. Each directory below the
       current directory that contains a Makefile.PL is treated as a separate
       object. This makes it possible to write an unlimited number of
       Makefiles with a single invocation of WriteMakefile().

       All inputs to WriteMakefile are Unicode characters, not just octets.
       EUMM seeks to handle all of these correctly. It is currently still not
       possible to portably use Unicode characters in module names, because
       this requires Perl to handle Unicode filenames, which is not yet the
       case on Windows.

       See ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ for details of the design and usage.

   How To Write A Makefile.PL
       See ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial.

       The long answer is the rest of the manpage :-)

   Default Makefile Behaviour
       The generated Makefile enables the user of the extension to invoke

         perl Makefile.PL # optionally "perl Makefile.PL verbose"
         make test        # optionally set TEST_VERBOSE=1
         make install     # See below

       The Makefile to be produced may be altered by adding arguments of the
       form "KEY=VALUE". E.g.

         perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=~

       Other interesting targets in the generated Makefile are

         make config     # to check if the Makefile is up-to-date
         make clean      # delete local temp files (Makefile gets renamed)
         make realclean  # delete derived files (including ./blib)
         make ci         # check in all the files in the MANIFEST file
         make dist       # see below the Distribution Support section

   make test
       MakeMaker checks for the existence of a file named in the
       current directory, and if it exists it executes the script with the
       proper set of perl "-I" options.

       MakeMaker also checks for any files matching glob("t/*.t"). It will
       execute all matching files in alphabetical order via the Test::Harness
       module with the "-I" switches set correctly.

       You can also organize your tests within subdirectories in the t/
       directory.  To do so, use the test directive in your Makefile.PL. For
       example, if you had tests in:


       You could tell make to run tests in both of those directories with the
       following directives:

           test => {TESTS => 't/*/*.t t/*/*/*.t'}
           test => {TESTS => 't/foo/*.t t/foo/bar/*.t'}

       The first will run all test files in all first-level subdirectories and
       all subdirectories they contain. The second will run tests in only the
       t/foo and t/foo/bar.

       If you'd like to see the raw output of your tests, set the
       "TEST_VERBOSE" variable to true.

         make test TEST_VERBOSE=1

       If you want to run particular test files, set the "TEST_FILES"
       variable.  It is possible to use globbing with this mechanism.

         make test TEST_FILES='t/foobar.t t/dagobah*.t'

       Windows users who are using "nmake" should note that due to a bug in
       "nmake", when specifying "TEST_FILES" you must use back-slashes instead
       of forward-slashes.

         nmake test TEST_FILES='t\foobar.t t\dagobah*.t'

   make testdb
       A useful variation of the above is the target "testdb". It runs the
       test under the Perl debugger (see perldebug). If the file
       exists in the current directory, it is used for the test.

       If you want to debug some other testfile, set the "TEST_FILE" variable

         make testdb TEST_FILE=t/mytest.t

       By default the debugger is called using "-d" option to perl. If you
       want to specify some other option, set the "TESTDB_SW" variable:

         make testdb TESTDB_SW=-Dx

   make install
       make alone puts all relevant files into directories that are named by
       INST_MAN3DIR.  All these default to something below ./blib if you are
       not building below the perl source directory. If you are building below
       the perl source, INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB default to ../../lib, and
       INST_SCRIPT is not defined.

       The install target of the generated Makefile copies the files found
       below each of the INST_* directories to their INSTALL* counterparts.
       Which counterparts are chosen depends on the setting of INSTALLDIRS
       according to the following table:

                                        INSTALLDIRS set to
                                  perl        site          vendor

                        PERLPREFIX      SITEPREFIX          VENDORPREFIX

       The INSTALL... macros in turn default to their %Config
       ($Config{installprivlib}, $Config{installarchlib}, etc.) counterparts.

       You can check the values of these variables on your system with

           perl '-V:install.*'

       And to check the sequence in which the library directories are searched
       by perl, run

           perl -le 'print join $/, @INC'

       Sometimes older versions of the module you're installing live in other
       directories in @INC.  Because Perl loads the first version of a module
       it finds, not the newest, you might accidentally get one of these older
       versions even after installing a brand new version.  To delete all
       other versions of the module you're installing (not simply older ones)
       set the "UNINST" variable.

           make install UNINST=1

       INSTALL_BASE can be passed into Makefile.PL to change where your module
       will be installed.  INSTALL_BASE is more like what everyone else calls
       "prefix" than PREFIX is.

       To have everything installed in your home directory, do the following.

           # Unix users, INSTALL_BASE=~ works fine
           perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=/path/to/your/home/dir

       Like PREFIX, it sets several INSTALL* attributes at once.  Unlike
       PREFIX it is easy to predict where the module will end up.  The
       installation pattern looks like this:

           INSTALLARCHLIB     INSTALL_BASE/lib/perl5/$Config{archname}
           INSTALLPRIVLIB     INSTALL_BASE/lib/perl5
           INSTALLBIN         INSTALL_BASE/bin
           INSTALLMAN1DIR     INSTALL_BASE/man/man1
           INSTALLMAN3DIR     INSTALL_BASE/man/man3

       INSTALL_BASE in MakeMaker and "--install_base" in Module::Build (as of
       0.28) install to the same location.  If you want MakeMaker and
       Module::Build to install to the same location simply set INSTALL_BASE
       and "--install_base" to the same location.

       INSTALL_BASE was added in 6.31.

   PREFIX and LIB attribute
       PREFIX and LIB can be used to set several INSTALL* attributes in one
       go.  Here's an example for installing into your home directory.

           # Unix users, PREFIX=~ works fine
           perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/path/to/your/home/dir

       This will install all files in the module under your home directory,
       with man pages and libraries going into an appropriate place (usually
       ~/man and ~/lib).  How the exact location is determined is complicated
       and depends on how your Perl was configured.  INSTALL_BASE works more
       like what other build systems call "prefix" than PREFIX and we
       recommend you use that instead.

       Another way to specify many INSTALL directories with a single parameter
       is LIB.

           perl Makefile.PL LIB=~/lib

       This will install the module's architecture-independent files into
       ~/lib, the architecture-dependent files into ~/lib/$archname.

       Note, that in both cases the tilde expansion is done by MakeMaker, not
       by perl by default, nor by make.

       Conflicts between parameters LIB, PREFIX and the various INSTALL*
       arguments are resolved so that:

       o   setting LIB overrides any setting of INSTALLPRIVLIB,
           affected by PREFIX);

       o   without LIB, setting PREFIX replaces the initial $Config{prefix}
           part of those INSTALL* arguments, even if the latter are explicitly
           set (but are set to still start with $Config{prefix}).

       If the user has superuser privileges, and is not working on AFS or
       relatives, then the defaults for INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCHLIB,
       INSTALLSCRIPT, etc. will be appropriate, and this incantation will be
       the best:

           perl Makefile.PL;
           make test
           make install

       make install by default writes some documentation of what has been done
       into the file "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This feature can be
       bypassed by calling make pure_install.

   AFS users
       will have to specify the installation directories as these most
       probably have changed since perl itself has been installed. They will
       have to do this by calling

           perl Makefile.PL INSTALLSITELIB=/afs/here/today \
               INSTALLSCRIPT=/afs/there/now INSTALLMAN3DIR=/afs/for/manpages

       Be careful to repeat this procedure every time you recompile an
       extension, unless you are sure the AFS installation directories are
       still valid.

   Static Linking of a new Perl Binary
       An extension that is built with the above steps is ready to use on
       systems supporting dynamic loading. On systems that do not support
       dynamic loading, any newly created extension has to be linked together
       with the available resources. MakeMaker supports the linking process by
       creating appropriate targets in the Makefile whenever an extension is
       built. You can invoke the corresponding section of the makefile with

           make perl

       That produces a new perl binary in the current directory with all
       extensions linked in that can be found in INST_ARCHLIB, SITELIBEXP, and
       PERL_ARCHLIB. To do that, MakeMaker writes a new Makefile, on UNIX,
       this is called Makefile.aperl (may be system dependent). If you want to
       force the creation of a new perl, it is recommended that you delete
       this Makefile.aperl, so the directories are searched through for
       linkable libraries again.

       The binary can be installed into the directory where perl normally
       resides on your machine with

           make inst_perl

       To produce a perl binary with a different name than "perl", either say

           perl Makefile.PL MAP_TARGET=myperl
           make myperl
           make inst_perl

       or say

           perl Makefile.PL
           make myperl MAP_TARGET=myperl
           make inst_perl MAP_TARGET=myperl

       In any case you will be prompted with the correct invocation of the
       "inst_perl" target that installs the new binary into INSTALLBIN.

       make inst_perl by default writes some documentation of what has been
       done into the file "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This can be
       bypassed by calling make pure_inst_perl.

       Warning: the inst_perl: target will most probably overwrite your
       existing perl binary. Use with care!

       Sometimes you might want to build a statically linked perl although
       your system supports dynamic loading. In this case you may explicitly
       set the linktype with the invocation of the Makefile.PL or make:

           perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static    # recommended


           make LINKTYPE=static                # works on most systems

   Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations
       MakeMaker needs to know, or to guess, where certain things are located.
       Especially INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB (where to put the files during the
       make(1) run), PERL_LIB and PERL_ARCHLIB (where to read existing modules
       from), and PERL_INC (header files and "libperl*.*").

       Extensions may be built either using the contents of the perl source
       directory tree or from the installed perl library. The recommended way
       is to build extensions after you have run 'make install' on perl
       itself. You can do that in any directory on your hard disk that is not
       below the perl source tree. The support for extensions below the ext
       directory of the perl distribution is only good for the standard
       extensions that come with perl.

       If an extension is being built below the "ext/" directory of the perl
       source then MakeMaker will set PERL_SRC automatically (e.g., "../..").
       If PERL_SRC is defined and the extension is recognized as a standard
       extension, then other variables default to the following:

         PERL_INC     = PERL_SRC
         PERL_LIB     = PERL_SRC/lib
         PERL_ARCHLIB = PERL_SRC/lib
         INST_LIB     = PERL_LIB

       If an extension is being built away from the perl source then MakeMaker
       will leave PERL_SRC undefined and default to using the installed copy
       of the perl library. The other variables default to the following:

         PERL_INC     = $archlibexp/CORE
         PERL_LIB     = $privlibexp
         PERL_ARCHLIB = $archlibexp
         INST_LIB     = ./blib/lib
         INST_ARCHLIB = ./blib/arch

       If perl has not yet been installed then PERL_SRC can be defined on the
       command line as shown in the previous section.

   Which architecture dependent directory?
       If you don't want to keep the defaults for the INSTALL* macros,
       MakeMaker helps you to minimize the typing needed: the usual
       relationship between INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLARCHLIB is determined by
       Configure at perl compilation time. MakeMaker supports the user who
       then MakeMaker defaults the latter to be the same subdirectory of
       INSTALLPRIVLIB as Configure decided for the counterparts in %Config,
       otherwise it defaults to INSTALLPRIVLIB. The same relationship holds

       MakeMaker gives you much more freedom than needed to configure internal
       variables and get different results. It is worth mentioning that
       make(1) also lets you configure most of the variables that are used in
       the Makefile. But in the majority of situations this will not be
       necessary, and should only be done if the author of a package
       recommends it (or you know what you're doing).

   Using Attributes and Parameters
       The following attributes may be specified as arguments to
       WriteMakefile() or as NAME=VALUE pairs on the command line. Attributes
       that became available with later versions of MakeMaker are indicated.

       In order to maintain portability of attributes with older versions of
       MakeMaker you may want to use App::EUMM::Upgrade with your

         One line description of the module. Will be included in PPD file.

         Name of the file that contains the package description. MakeMaker
         looks for a line in the POD matching /^($package\s-\s)(.*)/. This is
         typically the first line in the "=head1 NAME" section. $2 becomes the

         Array of strings containing name (and email address) of package
         author(s).  Is used in CPAN Meta files (META.yml or META.json) and
         PPD (Perl Package Description) files for PPM (Perl Package Manager).

         Used when creating PPD files for binary packages.  It can be set to a
         full or relative path or URL to the binary archive for a particular
         architecture.  For example:

                 perl Makefile.PL BINARY_LOCATION=x86/Agent.tar.gz

         builds a PPD package that references a binary of the "Agent" package,
         located in the "x86" directory relative to the PPD itself.

         Available in version 6.55_03 and above.

         A hash of modules that are needed to build your module but not run

         This will go into the "build_requires" field of your META.yml and the
         "build" of the "prereqs" field of your META.json.

         Defaults to "{ "ExtUtils::MakeMaker" => 0 }" if this attribute is not

         The format is the same as PREREQ_PM.

       C Ref to array of *.c file names. Initialised from a directory scan and
         the values portion of the XS attribute hash. This is not currently
         used by MakeMaker but may be handy in Makefile.PLs.

         String that will be included in the compiler call command line
         between the arguments INC and OPTIMIZE.

         Arrayref. E.g. [qw(archname manext)] defines ARCHNAME & MANEXT from MakeMaker will add to CONFIG the following values anyway:
         ar cc cccdlflags ccdlflags dlext dlsrc ld lddlflags ldflags libc
         lib_ext obj_ext ranlib sitelibexp sitearchexp so

         CODE reference. The subroutine should return a hash reference. The
         hash may contain further attributes, e.g. {LIBS => ...}, that have to
         be determined by some evaluation method.

         Available in version 6.52 and above.

         A hash of modules that are required to run Makefile.PL itself, but
         not to run your distribution.

         This will go into the "configure_requires" field of your META.yml and
         the "configure" of the "prereqs" field of your META.json.

         Defaults to "{ "ExtUtils::MakeMaker" => 0 }" if this attribute is not

         The format is the same as PREREQ_PM.

         Something like "-DHAVE_UNISTD_H"

         This is the root directory into which the code will be installed.  It
         prepends itself to the normal prefix.  For example, if your code
         would normally go into /usr/local/lib/perl you could set
         DESTDIR=~/tmp/ and installation would go into

         This is primarily of use for people who repackage Perl modules.

         NOTE: Due to the nature of make, it is important that you put the
         trailing slash on your DESTDIR.  ~/tmp/ not ~/tmp.

         Ref to array of subdirectories containing Makefile.PLs e.g. ['sdbm']
         in ext/SDBM_File

         A safe filename for the package.

         Defaults to NAME below but with :: replaced with -.

         For example, Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar.

         Your name for distributing the package with the version number
         included.  This is used by 'make dist' to name the resulting archive

         Defaults to DISTNAME-VERSION.

         For example, version 1.04 of Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar-1.04.

         On some OS's where . has special meaning VERSION_SYM may be used in
         place of VERSION.

         Specifies the extension of the module's loadable object. For example:

           DLEXT => 'unusual_ext', # Default value is $Config{so}

         NOTE: When using this option to alter the extension of a module's
         loadable object, it is also necessary that the module's pm file
         specifies the same change:

           local $DynaLoader::dl_dlext = 'unusual_ext';

         Hashref of symbol names for routines to be made available as
         universal symbols.  Each key/value pair consists of the package name
         and an array of routine names in that package.  Used only under AIX,
         OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present.  The routine names supplied will be
         expanded in the same way as XSUB names are expanded by the XS()
         macro.  Defaults to

           {"$(NAME)" => ["boot_$(NAME)" ] }


           {"RPC" => [qw( boot_rpcb rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent )],
            "NetconfigPtr" => [ 'DESTROY'] }

         Please see the ExtUtils::Mksymlists documentation for more
         information about the DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS and FUNCLIST attributes.

         Array of symbol names for variables to be made available as universal
         symbols.  Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present.
         Defaults to [].  (e.g. [ qw(Foo_version Foo_numstreams Foo_tree ) ])

         Array of extension names to exclude when doing a static build.  This
         is ignored if INCLUDE_EXT is present.  Consult INCLUDE_EXT for more
         details.  (e.g.  [ qw( Socket POSIX ) ] )

         This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string on the
         command line:  perl Makefile.PL EXCLUDE_EXT='Socket Safe'

         Ref to array of executable files. The files will be copied to the
         INST_SCRIPT directory. Make realclean will delete them from there

         If your executables start with something like #!perl or
         #!/usr/bin/perl MakeMaker will change this to the path of the perl
         'Makefile.PL' was invoked with so the programs will be sure to run
         properly even if perl is not in /usr/bin/perl.

         The name of the Makefile to be produced.  This is used for the second
         Makefile that will be produced for the MAP_TARGET.

         Defaults to 'Makefile' or 'Descrip.MMS' on VMS.

         (Note: we couldn't use MAKEFILE because dmake uses this for something

         Perl binary able to run this extension, load XS modules, etc...

         Like PERLRUN, except it uses FULLPERL.

         Like PERLRUNINST, except it uses FULLPERL.

         This provides an alternate means to specify function names to be
         exported from the extension.  Its value is a reference to an array of
         function names to be exported by the extension.  These names are
         passed through unaltered to the linker options file.

       H Ref to array of *.h file names. Similar to C.

         This attribute is used to specify names to be imported into the
         extension. Takes a hash ref.

         It is only used on OS/2 and Win32.

         Include file dirs eg: "-I/usr/5include -I/path/to/inc"

         Array of extension names to be included when doing a static build.
         MakeMaker will normally build with all of the installed extensions
         when doing a static build, and that is usually the desired behavior.
         If INCLUDE_EXT is present then MakeMaker will build only with those
         extensions which are explicitly mentioned. (e.g.  [ qw( Socket POSIX
         ) ])

         It is not necessary to mention DynaLoader or the current extension
         when filling in INCLUDE_EXT.  If the INCLUDE_EXT is mentioned but is
         empty then only DynaLoader and the current extension will be included
         in the build.

         This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string on the
         command line:  perl Makefile.PL INCLUDE_EXT='POSIX Socket

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

         Directory to install binary files (e.g. tkperl) into if

         Determines which of the sets of installation directories to choose:
         perl, site or vendor.  Defaults to site.

         These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time if
         INSTALLDIRS=perl.  Defaults to $Config{installman*dir}.

         If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

         Defaults to $Config{installprivlib}.

         Available in version 6.30_02 and above.

         Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS=perl.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

         These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time if
         INSTALLDIRS=site (default).  Defaults to

         If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

         Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor. Note that if you do not
         set this, the value of INSTALLVENDORLIB will be used, which is
         probably not what you want.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

         These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time if
         INSTALLDIRS=vendor.  Defaults to $(VENDORPREFIX)/man/man$(MAN*EXT).

         If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

         Available in version 6.30_02 and above.

         Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to this
         directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

         Same as INST_LIB for architecture dependent files.

         Directory to put real binary files during 'make'. These will be
         copied to INSTALLBIN during 'make install'

         Directory where we put library files of this extension while building

         Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

         Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

         Directory where executable files should be installed during 'make'.
         Defaults to "./blib/script", just to have a dummy location during
         testing. make install will copy the files in INST_SCRIPT to

         Program to be used to link libraries for dynamic loading.

         Defaults to $Config{ld}.

         Any special flags that might need to be passed to ld to create a
         shared library suitable for dynamic loading.  It is up to the
         makefile to use it.  (See "lddlflags" in Config)

         Defaults to $Config{lddlflags}.

         Defaults to "$(OBJECT)" and is used in the ld command to specify what
         files to link/load from (also see dynamic_lib below for how to
         specify ld flags)

         LIB should only be set at "perl Makefile.PL" time but is allowed as a
         MakeMaker argument. It has the effect of setting both INSTALLPRIVLIB
         and INSTALLSITELIB to that value regardless any explicit setting of
         those arguments (or of PREFIX).  INSTALLARCHLIB and INSTALLSITEARCH
         are set to the corresponding architecture subdirectory.

         The filename of the perllibrary that will be used together with this
         extension. Defaults to libperl.a.

         An anonymous array of alternative library specifications to be
         searched for (in order) until at least one library is found. E.g.

           'LIBS' => ["-lgdbm", "-ldbm -lfoo", "-L/path -ldbm.nfs"]

         Mind, that any element of the array contains a complete set of
         arguments for the ld command. So do not specify

           'LIBS' => ["-ltcl", "-ltk", "-lX11"]

         See ODBM_File/Makefile.PL for an example, where an array is needed.
         If you specify a scalar as in

           'LIBS' => "-ltcl -ltk -lX11"

         MakeMaker will turn it into an array with one element.

         Available in version 6.31 and above.

         The licensing terms of your distribution.  Generally it's "perl_5"
         for the same license as Perl itself.

         See CPAN::Meta::Spec for the list of options.

         Defaults to "unknown".

         'static' or 'dynamic' (default unless usedl=undef in
         Should only be used to force static linking (also see linkext below).

         Available in version 6.8305 and above.

         When this is set to 1, "OBJECT" will be automagically derived from

         Available in version 6.30_01 and above.

         Variant of make you intend to run the generated Makefile with.  This
         parameter lets Makefile.PL know what make quirks to account for when
         generating the Makefile.

         MakeMaker also honors the MAKE environment variable.  This parameter
         takes precedence.

         Currently the only significant values are 'dmake' and 'nmake' for
         Windows users, instructing MakeMaker to generate a Makefile in the
         flavour of DMake ("Dennis Vadura's Make") or Microsoft NMake

         Defaults to $Config{make}, which may go looking for a Make program in
         your environment.

         How are you supposed to know what flavour of Make a Makefile has been
         generated for if you didn't specify a value explicitly? Search the
         generated Makefile for the definition of the MAKE variable, which is
         used to recursively invoke the Make utility. That will tell you what
         Make you're supposed to invoke the Makefile with.

         Boolean which tells MakeMaker that it should include the rules to
         make a perl. This is handled automatically as a switch by MakeMaker.
         The user normally does not need it.

         When 'make clean' or similar is run, the $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) will be
         backed up at this location.

         Defaults to $(FIRST_MAKEFILE).old or $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)_old on VMS.

         Hashref of pod-containing files. MakeMaker will default this to all
         EXE_FILES files that include POD directives. The files listed here
         will be converted to man pages and installed as was requested at
         Configure time.

         This hash should map POD files (or scripts containing POD) to the man
         file names under the "blib/man1/" directory, as in the following

           MAN1PODS            => {
             'doc/command.pod'    => 'blib/man1/command.1',
             'scripts/'  => 'blib/man1/script.1',

         Hashref that assigns to *.pm and *.pod files the files into which the
         manpages are to be written. MakeMaker parses all *.pod and *.pm files
         for POD directives. Files that contain POD will be the default keys
         of the MAN3PODS hashref. These will then be converted to man pages
         during "make" and will be installed during "make install".

         Example similar to MAN1PODS.

         If it is intended that a new perl binary be produced, this variable
         may hold a name for that binary. Defaults to perl

         Available in version 6.46 and above.

         A hashref of items to add to the CPAN Meta file (META.yml or

         They differ in how they behave if they have the same key as the
         default metadata.  META_ADD will override the default value with its
         own.  META_MERGE will merge its value with the default.

         Unless you want to override the defaults, prefer META_MERGE so as to
         get the advantage of any future defaults.

         Where prereqs are concerned, if META_MERGE is used, prerequisites are
         merged with their counterpart "WriteMakefile()" argument (PREREQ_PM
         is merged into {prereqs}{runtime}{requires}, BUILD_REQUIRES into
         "{prereqs}{build}{requires}", CONFIGURE_REQUIRES into
         "{prereqs}{configure}{requires}", and TEST_REQUIRES into
         "{prereqs}{test}{requires})".  When prereqs are specified with
         META_ADD, the only prerequisites added to the file come from the
         metadata, not "WriteMakefile()" arguments.

         Note that these configuration options are only used for generating
         META.yml and META.json -- they are NOT used for MYMETA.yml and
         MYMETA.json.  Therefore data in these fields should NOT be used for
         dynamic (user-side) configuration.

         By default CPAN Meta specification 1.4 is used. In order to use CPAN
         Meta specification 2.0, indicate with "meta-spec" the version you
         want to use.

           META_MERGE        => {

             "meta-spec" => { version => 2 },

             resources => {

               repository => {
                   type => 'git',
                   url => 'git://',
                   web => '',



         Available in version 6.48 and above.

         The minimum required version of Perl for this distribution.

         Either the 5.006001 or the 5.6.1 format is acceptable.

         If the extension links to a library that it builds, set this to the
         name of the library (see SDBM_File)

         The package representing the distribution. For example, "Test::More"
         or "ExtUtils::MakeMaker". It will be used to derive information about
         the distribution such as the "DISTNAME", installation locations
         within the Perl library and where XS files will be looked for by
         default (see "XS").

         "NAME" must be a valid Perl package name and it must have an
         associated ".pm" file. For example, "Foo::Bar" is a valid "NAME" and
         there must exist Foo/  Any XS code should be in Bar.xs unless
         stated otherwise.

         Your distribution must have a "NAME".

         MakeMaker will figure out if an extension contains linkable code
         anywhere down the directory tree, and will set this variable
         accordingly, but you can speed it up a very little bit if you define
         this boolean variable yourself.

         Command so make does not print the literal commands it's running.

         By setting it to an empty string you can generate a Makefile that
         prints all commands. Mainly used in debugging MakeMaker itself.

         Defaults to "@".

         Boolean.  Attribute to inhibit descending into subdirectories.

         When true, suppresses the generation and addition to the MANIFEST of
         the META.yml and META.json module meta-data files during 'make

         Defaults to false.

         Available in version 6.57_02 and above.

         When true, suppresses the generation of MYMETA.yml and MYMETA.json
         module meta-data files during 'perl Makefile.PL'.

         Defaults to false.

         Available in version 6.7501 and above.

         When true, suppresses the writing of "packlist" files for installs.

         Defaults to false.

         Available in version 6.7501 and above.

         When true, suppresses the appending of installations to "perllocal".

         Defaults to false.

         In general, any generated Makefile checks for the current version of
         MakeMaker and the version the Makefile was built under. If NO_VC is
         set, the version check is neglected. Do not write this into your
         Makefile.PL, use it interactively instead.

         List of object files, defaults to '$(BASEEXT)$(OBJ_EXT)', but can be
         a long string or an array containing all object files, e.g.
         "tkpBind.o tkpButton.o tkpCanvas.o" or ["tkpBind.o", "tkpButton.o",

         (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME, and OBJ_EXT is

         Defaults to "-O". Set it to "-g" to turn debugging on. The flag is
         passed to subdirectory makes.

         Perl binary for tasks that can be done by miniperl. If it contains
         spaces or other shell metacharacters, it needs to be quoted in a way
         that protects them, since this value is intended to be inserted in a
         shell command line in the Makefile. E.g.:

           # Perl executable lives in "C:/Program Files/Perl/bin"
           # Normally you don't need to set this yourself!
           $ perl Makefile.PL PERL='"C:/Program Files/Perl/bin/perl.exe" -w'

         Set only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core

         The call to the program that is able to compile perlmain.c. Defaults
         to $(CC).

         Same as for PERL_LIB, but for architecture dependent files.

         Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core
         distribution (because normally $(PERL_ARCHLIB) is automatically in
         @INC, and adding it would get in the way of PERL5LIB).

         Directory containing the Perl library to use.

         Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core
         distribution (because normally $(PERL_LIB) is automatically in @INC,
         and adding it would get in the way of PERL5LIB).

         defaults to 0.  Should be set to TRUE if the extension can work with
         the memory allocation routines substituted by the Perl malloc()
         subsystem.  This should be applicable to most extensions with
         exceptions of those

         o   with bugs in memory allocations which are caught by Perl's

         o   which interact with the memory allocator in other ways than via
             malloc(), realloc(), free(), calloc(), sbrk() and brk();

         o   which rely on special alignment which is not provided by Perl's

         NOTE.  Neglecting to set this flag in any one of the loaded extension
         nullifies many advantages of Perl's malloc(), such as better usage of
         system resources, error detection, memory usage reporting, catchable
         failure of memory allocations, etc.

         Directory under which core modules are to be installed.

         Defaults to $Config{installprefixexp}, falling back to
         $Config{installprefix}, $Config{prefixexp} or $Config{prefix} should
         $Config{installprefixexp} not exist.

         Overridden by PREFIX.

         Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl.  It will set
         up extra necessary flags for you.

         Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl to work with
         modules.  It will add things like -I$(INST_ARCH) and other necessary
         flags so perl can see the modules you're about to install.

         Directory containing the Perl source code (use of this should be
         avoided, it may be undefined)

         Available in version 6.51_01 and above.

         Desired permission for directories. Defaults to 755.

         Desired permission for read/writable files. Defaults to 644.

         Desired permission for executable files. Defaults to 755.

         MakeMaker can run programs to generate files for you at build time.
         By default any file named *.PL (except Makefile.PL and Build.PL) in
         the top level directory will be assumed to be a Perl program and run
         passing its own basename in as an argument.  This basename is
         actually a build target, and there is an intention, but not a
         requirement, that the *.PL file make the file passed to to as an
         argument. For example...

             perl foo.PL foo

         This behavior can be overridden by supplying your own set of files to
         search.  PL_FILES accepts a hash ref, the key being the file to run
         and the value is passed in as the first argument when the PL file is

             PL_FILES => {'bin/foobar.PL' => 'bin/foobar'}

             PL_FILES => {'foo.PL' => 'foo.c'}

         Would run bin/foobar.PL like this:

             perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar

         If multiple files from one program are desired an array ref can be

             PL_FILES => {'bin/foobar.PL' => [qw(bin/foobar1 bin/foobar2)]}

         In this case the program will be run multiple times using each target

             perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar1
             perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar2

         If an output file depends on extra input files beside the script
         itself, a hash ref can be used in version 7.36 and above:

             PL_FILES => { 'foo.PL' => {
                 'foo.out' => '',
                 'bar.out' => [qw(],

         In this case the extra input files will be passed to the program
         after the target file:

            perl foo.PL foo.out
            perl foo.PL bar.out

         PL files are normally run after pm_to_blib and include INST_LIB and
         INST_ARCH in their @INC, so the just built modules can be accessed...
         unless the PL file is making a module (or anything else in PM) in
         which case it is run before pm_to_blib and does not include INST_LIB
         and INST_ARCH in its @INC.  This apparently odd behavior is there for
         backwards compatibility (and it's somewhat DWIM).  The argument
         passed to the .PL is set up as a target to build in the Makefile.  In
         other sections such as "postamble" you can specify a dependency on
         the filename/argument that the .PL is supposed (or will have, now
         that that is is a dependency) to generate.  Note the file to be
         generated will still be generated and the .PL will still run even
         without an explicit dependency created by you, since the "all" target
         still depends on running all eligible to run.PL files.

         Hashref of .pm files and *.pl files to be installed.  e.g.

           {'' => '$(INST_LIB)/'}

         By default this will include *.pm and *.pl and the files found in the
         PMLIBDIRS directories.  Defining PM in the Makefile.PL will override

         Ref to array of subdirectories containing library files.  Defaults to
         [ 'lib', $(BASEEXT) ]. The directories will be scanned and any files
         they contain will be installed in the corresponding location in the
         library.  A libscan() method can be used to alter the behaviour.
         Defining PM in the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

         (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME.)

         A filter program, in the traditional Unix sense (input from stdin,
         output to stdout) that is passed on each .pm file during the build
         (in the pm_to_blib() phase).  It is empty by default, meaning no
         filtering is done.  You could use:

           PM_FILTER => 'perl -ne "print unless /^\\#/"',

         to remove all the leading comments on the fly during the build.  In
         order to be as portable as possible, please consider using a Perl
         one-liner rather than Unix (or other) utilities, as above.  The # is
         escaped for the Makefile, since what is going to be generated will
         then be:

           PM_FILTER = perl -ne "print unless /^\#/"

         Without the \ before the #, we'd have the start of a Makefile
         comment, and the macro would be incorrectly defined.

         You will almost certainly be better off using the "PL_FILES" system,
         instead. See above, or the ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ entry.

         Release 5.005 grandfathered old global symbol names by providing
         preprocessor macros for extension source compatibility.  As of
         release 5.6, these preprocessor definitions are not available by
         default.  The POLLUTE flag specifies that the old names should still
         be defined:

           perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1

         Please inform the module author if this is necessary to successfully
         install a module under 5.6 or later.

         Name of the executable used to run "PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT" below. (e.g.

         Name of the script that gets executed by the Perl Package Manager
         after the installation of a package.

         Available in version 6.8502 and above.

         Name of the executable used to run "PPM_UNINSTALL_SCRIPT" below.
         (e.g. perl)

         Available in version 6.8502 and above.

         Name of the script that gets executed by the Perl Package Manager
         before the removal of a package.

         This overrides all the default install locations.  Man pages,
         libraries, scripts, etc...  MakeMaker will try to make an educated
         guess about where to place things under the new PREFIX based on your
         Config defaults.  Failing that, it will fall back to a structure
         which should be sensible for your platform.

         If you specify LIB or any INSTALL* variables they will not be
         affected by the PREFIX.

         Bool. If this parameter is true, failing to have the required modules
         (or the right versions thereof) will be fatal. "perl Makefile.PL"
         will "die" instead of simply informing the user of the missing

         It is extremely rare to have to use "PREREQ_FATAL". Its use by module
         authors is strongly discouraged and should never be used lightly.

         For dependencies that are required in order to run "Makefile.PL", see

         Module installation tools have ways of resolving unmet dependencies
         but to do that they need a Makefile.  Using "PREREQ_FATAL" breaks
         this.  That's bad.

         Assuming you have good test coverage, your tests should fail with
         missing dependencies informing the user more strongly that something
         is wrong.  You can write a t/00compile.t test which will simply check
         that your code compiles and stop "make test" prematurely if it
         doesn't.  See "BAIL_OUT" in Test::More for more details.

         A hash of modules that are needed to run your module.  The keys are
         the module names ie. Test::More, and the minimum version is the
         value. If the required version number is 0 any version will do.  The
         versions given may be a Perl v-string (see version) or a range (see

         This will go into the "requires" field of your META.yml and the
         "runtime" of the "prereqs" field of your META.json.

             PREREQ_PM => {
                 # Require Test::More at least 0.47
                 "Test::More" => "0.47",

                 # Require any version of Acme::Buffy
                 "Acme::Buffy" => 0,

         Bool.  If this parameter is true, the prerequisites will be printed
         to stdout and MakeMaker will exit.  The output format is an evalable
         hash ref.

           $PREREQ_PM = {
                          'A::B' => Vers1,
                          'C::D' => Vers2,

         If a distribution defines a minimal required perl version, this is
         added to the output as an additional line of the form:

           $MIN_PERL_VERSION = '5.008001';

         If BUILD_REQUIRES is not empty, it will be dumped as $BUILD_REQUIRES

         RedHatism for "PREREQ_PRINT".  The output format is different,

             perl(A::B)>=Vers1 perl(C::D)>=Vers2 ...

         A minimal required perl version, if present, will look like this:


         Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the site install locations.

         Defaults to $Config{siteprefixexp}.  Perls prior to 5.6.0 didn't have
         an explicit siteprefix in the Config.  In those cases
         $Config{installprefix} will be used.

         Overridable by PREFIX

         Available in version 6.18 and above.

         When true, perform the generation and addition to the MANIFEST of the
         SIGNATURE file in the distdir during 'make distdir', via 'cpansign

         Note that you need to install the Module::Signature module to perform
         this operation.

         Defaults to false.

         Arrayref. E.g. [qw(name1 name2)] skip (do not write) sections of the
         Makefile. Caution! Do not use the SKIP attribute for the negligible
         speedup. It may seriously damage the resulting Makefile. Only use it
         if you really need it.

         Available in version 6.64 and above.

         A hash of modules that are needed to test your module but not run or
         build it.

         This will go into the "build_requires" field of your META.yml and the
         "test" of the "prereqs" field of your META.json.

         The format is the same as PREREQ_PM.

         Ref to array of typemap file names.  Use this when the typemaps are
         in some directory other than the current directory or when they are
         not named typemap.  The last typemap in the list takes precedence.  A
         typemap in the current directory has highest precedence, even if it
         isn't listed in TYPEMAPS.  The default system typemap has lowest

         Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the vendor install locations.

         Defaults to $Config{vendorprefixexp}.

         Overridable by PREFIX

         If true, make install will be verbose

         Your version number for distributing the package.  This defaults to

         Instead of specifying the VERSION in the Makefile.PL you can let
         MakeMaker parse a file to determine the version number. The parsing
         routine requires that the file named by VERSION_FROM contains one
         single line to compute the version number. The first line in the file
         that contains something like a $VERSION assignment or "package Name
         VERSION" will be used. The following lines will be parsed o.k.:

             # Good
             package Foo::Bar 1.23;                      # 1.23
             $VERSION   = '1.00';                        # 1.00
             *VERSION   = \'1.01';                       # 1.01
             ($VERSION) = q$Revision$ =~ /(\d+)/g;       # The digits in $Revision$
             $FOO::VERSION = '1.10';                     # 1.10
             *FOO::VERSION = \'1.11';                    # 1.11

         but these will fail:

             # Bad
             my $VERSION         = '1.01';
             local $VERSION      = '1.02';
             local $FOO::VERSION = '1.30';

         (Putting "my" or "local" on the preceding line will work o.k.)

         "Version strings" are incompatible and should not be used.

             # Bad
             $VERSION = 1.2.3;
             $VERSION = v1.2.3;

         version objects are fine.  As of MakeMaker 6.35 will be
         automatically loaded, but you must declare the dependency on  For compatibility with older MakeMaker you should load
         on the same line as $VERSION is declared.

             # All on one line
             use version; our $VERSION = qv(1.2.3);

         The file named in VERSION_FROM is not added as a dependency to
         Makefile. This is not really correct, but it would be a major pain
         during development to have to rewrite the Makefile for any smallish
         change in that file. If you want to make sure that the Makefile
         contains the correct VERSION macro after any change of the file, you
         would have to do something like

             depend => { Makefile => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

         See attribute "depend" below.

         A sanitized VERSION with . replaced by _.  For places where . has
         special meaning (some filesystems, RCS labels, etc...)

         Hashref of .xs files. MakeMaker will default this.  e.g.

           {'name_of_file.xs' => 'name_of_file.c'}

         The .c files will automatically be included in the list of files
         deleted by a make clean.

         Available in version 7.12 and above.

         Hashref with options controlling the operation of "XSMULTI":

             xs => {
                 all => {
                     # options applying to all .xs files for this distribution
                 'lib/Class/Name/File' => { # specifically for this file
                     DEFINE => '-Dfunktastic', # defines for only this file
                     INC => "-I$funkyliblocation", # include flags for only this file
                     # OBJECT => 'lib/Class/Name/File$(OBJ_EXT)', # default
                     LDFROM => "lib/Class/Name/File\$(OBJ_EXT) $otherfile\$(OBJ_EXT)", # what's linked

         Note "xs" is the file-extension. More possibilities may arise in the
         future. Note that object names are specified without their XS

         "LDFROM" defaults to the same as "OBJECT". "OBJECT" defaults to, for
         "XSMULTI", just the XS filename with the extension replaced with the
         compiler-specific object-file extension.

         The distinction between "OBJECT" and "LDFROM": "OBJECT" is the make
         target, so make will try to build it. However, "LDFROM" is what will
         actually be linked together to make the shared object or static
         library (SO/SL), so if you override it, make sure it includes what
         you want to make the final SO/SL, almost certainly including the XS
         basename with "$(OBJ_EXT)" appended.

         Available in version 7.12 and above.

         When this is set to 1, multiple XS files may be placed under lib/
         next to their corresponding "*.pm" files (this is essential for
         compiling with the correct "VERSION" values). This feature should be
         considered experimental, and details of it may change.

         This feature was inspired by, and small portions of code copied from,
         ExtUtils::MakeMaker::BigHelper. Hopefully this feature will render
         that module mainly obsolete.

         String of options to pass to xsubpp.  This might include "-C++" or
         "-extern".  Do not include typemaps here; the TYPEMAP parameter
         exists for that purpose.

         May be set to "-prototypes", "-noprototypes" or the empty string.
         The empty string is equivalent to the xsubpp default, or
         "-noprototypes".  See the xsubpp documentation for details.
         MakeMaker defaults to the empty string.

         Your version number for the .xs file of this package.  This defaults
         to the value of the VERSION attribute.

   Additional lowercase attributes
       can be used to pass parameters to the methods which implement that part
       of the Makefile.  Parameters are specified as a hash ref but are passed
       to the method as a hash.

           {FILES => "*.xyz foo"}

           {ANY_TARGET => ANY_DEPENDENCY, ...}

         (ANY_TARGET must not be given a double-colon rule by MakeMaker.)

           {TARFLAGS => 'cvfF', COMPRESS => 'gzip', SUFFIX => '.gz',
           SHAR => 'shar -m', DIST_CP => 'ln', ZIP => '/bin/zip',
           ZIPFLAGS => '-rl', DIST_DEFAULT => 'private tardist' }

         If you specify COMPRESS, then SUFFIX should also be altered, as it is
         needed to tell make the target file of the compression. Setting
         DIST_CP to ln can be useful, if you need to preserve the timestamps
         on your files. DIST_CP can take the values 'cp', which copies the
         file, 'ln', which links the file, and 'best' which copies symbolic
         links and links the rest. Default is 'best'.

           {ARMAYBE => 'ar', OTHERLDFLAGS => '...', INST_DYNAMIC_DEP => '...'}

           {LINKTYPE => 'static', 'dynamic' or ''}

         NB: Extensions that have nothing but *.pm files had to say

           {LINKTYPE => ''}

         with Pre-5.0 MakeMakers. Since version 5.00 of MakeMaker such a line
         can be deleted safely. MakeMaker recognizes when there's nothing to
         be linked.

           {ANY_MACRO => ANY_VALUE, ...}

         Anything put here will be passed to MY::postamble() if you have one.

           {FILES => '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/*.xyz'}

         Specify the targets for testing.

           {TESTS => 't/*.t'}

         "RECURSIVE_TEST_FILES" can be used to include all directories
         recursively under "t" that contain ".t" files. It will be ignored if
         you provide your own "TESTS" attribute, defaults to false.


         This is supported since 6.76

           {MAXLEN => 8}

   Overriding MakeMaker Methods
       If you cannot achieve the desired Makefile behaviour by specifying
       attributes you may define private subroutines in the Makefile.PL.  Each
       subroutine returns the text it wishes to have written to the Makefile.
       To override a section of the Makefile you can either say:

               sub MY::c_o { "new literal text" }

       or you can edit the default by saying something like:

               package MY; # so that "SUPER" works right
               sub c_o {
                   my $inherited = shift->SUPER::c_o(@_);
                   $inherited =~ s/old text/new text/;

       If you are running experiments with embedding perl as a library into
       other applications, you might find MakeMaker is not sufficient. You'd
       better have a look at ExtUtils::Embed which is a collection of
       utilities for embedding.

       If you still need a different solution, try to develop another
       subroutine that fits your needs and submit the diffs to

       For a complete description of all MakeMaker methods see

       Here is a simple example of how to add a new target to the generated

           sub MY::postamble {
               return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
           $(MYEXTLIB): sdbm/Makefile
                   cd sdbm && $(MAKE) all


   The End Of Cargo Cult Programming
       WriteMakefile() now does some basic sanity checks on its parameters to
       protect against typos and malformatted values.  This means some things
       which happened to work in the past will now throw warnings and possibly
       produce internal errors.

       Some of the most common mistakes:

       "MAN3PODS => ' '"
         This is commonly used to suppress the creation of man pages.
         MAN3PODS takes a hash ref not a string, but the above worked by
         accident in old versions of MakeMaker.

         The correct code is "MAN3PODS => { }".

   Hintsfile support uses the architecture-specific information from
       In addition it evaluates architecture specific hints files in a
       "hints/" directory. The hints files are expected to be named like their
       counterparts in "PERL_SRC/hints", but with an ".pl" file name extension
       (eg. ""). They are simply "eval"ed by MakeMaker within the
       WriteMakefile() subroutine, and can be used to execute commands as well
       as to include special variables. The rules which hintsfile is chosen
       are the same as in Configure.

       The hintsfile is eval()ed immediately after the arguments given to
       WriteMakefile are stuffed into a hash reference $self but before this
       reference becomes blessed. So if you want to do the equivalent to
       override or create an attribute you would say something like

           $self->{LIBS} = ['-ldbm -lucb -lc'];

   Distribution Support
       For authors of extensions MakeMaker provides several Makefile targets.
       Most of the support comes from the ExtUtils::Manifest module, where
       additional documentation can be found.

       make distcheck
           reports which files are below the build directory but not in the
           MANIFEST file and vice versa. (See "fullcheck" in
           ExtUtils::Manifest for details)

       make skipcheck
           reports which files are skipped due to the entries in the
           "MANIFEST.SKIP" file (See "skipcheck" in ExtUtils::Manifest for

       make distclean
           does a realclean first and then the distcheck. Note that this is
           not needed to build a new distribution as long as you are sure that
           the MANIFEST file is ok.

       make veryclean
           does a realclean first and then removes backup files such as "*~",
           "*.bak", "*.old" and "*.orig"

       make manifest
           rewrites the MANIFEST file, adding all remaining files found (See
           "mkmanifest" in ExtUtils::Manifest for details)

       make distdir
           Copies all the files that are in the MANIFEST file to a newly
           created directory with the name "$(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)". If that
           directory exists, it will be removed first.

           Additionally, it will create META.yml and META.json module meta-
           data file in the distdir and add this to the distdir's MANIFEST.
           You can shut this behavior off with the NO_META flag.

       make disttest
           Makes a distdir first, and runs a "perl Makefile.PL", a make, and a
           make test in that directory.

       make tardist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a
           null command, followed by $(TO_UNIX), which defaults to a null
           command under UNIX, and will convert files in distribution
           directory to UNIX format otherwise. Next it runs "tar" on that
           directory into a tarfile and deletes the directory. Finishes with a
           command $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

       make dist
           Defaults to $(DIST_DEFAULT) which in turn defaults to tardist.

       make uutardist
           Runs a tardist first and uuencodes the tarfile.

       make shdist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a
           null command. Next it runs "shar" on that directory into a sharfile
           and deletes the intermediate directory again. Finishes with a
           command $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.  Note: For
           shdist to work properly a "shar" program that can handle
           directories is mandatory.

       make zipdist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a
           null command. Runs "$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS)" on that directory into a
           zipfile. Then deletes that directory. Finishes with a command
           $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

       make ci
           Does a $(CI) and a $(RCS_LABEL) on all files in the MANIFEST file.

       Customization of the dist targets can be done by specifying a hash
       reference to the dist attribute of the WriteMakefile call. The
       following parameters are recognized:

           CI           ('ci -u')
           COMPRESS     ('gzip --best')
           POSTOP       ('@ :')
           PREOP        ('@ :')
           TO_UNIX      (depends on the system)
           RCS_LABEL    ('rcs -q -Nv$(VERSION_SYM):')
           SHAR         ('shar')
           SUFFIX       ('.gz')
           TAR          ('tar')
           TARFLAGS     ('cvf')
           ZIP          ('zip')
           ZIPFLAGS     ('-r')

       An example:

               ...other options...
               dist => {
                   COMPRESS => "bzip2",
                   SUFFIX   => ".bz2"

   Module Meta-Data (META and MYMETA)
       Long plaguing users of MakeMaker based modules has been the problem of
       getting basic information about the module out of the sources without
       running the Makefile.PL and doing a bunch of messy heuristics on the
       resulting Makefile.  Over the years, it has become standard to keep
       this information in one or more CPAN Meta files distributed with each

       The original format of CPAN Meta files was YAML and the corresponding
       file was called META.yml.  In 2010, version 2 of the CPAN::Meta::Spec
       was released, which mandates JSON format for the metadata in order to
       overcome certain compatibility issues between YAML serializers and to
       avoid breaking older clients unable to handle a new version of the
       spec.  The CPAN::Meta library is now standard for accessing old and
       new-style Meta files.

       If CPAN::Meta is installed, MakeMaker will automatically generate
       META.json and META.yml files for you and add them to your MANIFEST as
       part of the 'distdir' target (and thus the 'dist' target).  This is
       intended to seamlessly and rapidly populate CPAN with module meta-data.
       If you wish to shut this feature off, set the "NO_META"
       "WriteMakefile()" flag to true.

       At the 2008 QA Hackathon in Oslo, Perl module toolchain maintainers
       agreed to use the CPAN Meta format to communicate post-configuration
       requirements between toolchain components.  These files, MYMETA.json
       and MYMETA.yml, are generated when Makefile.PL generates a Makefile (if
       CPAN::Meta is installed).  Clients like CPAN or CPANPLUS will read
       these files to see what prerequisites must be fulfilled before building
       or testing the distribution.  If you wish to shut this feature off, set
       the "NO_MYMETA" "WriteMakeFile()" flag to true.

   Disabling an extension
       If some events detected in Makefile.PL imply that there is no way to
       create the Module, but this is a normal state of things, then you can
       create a Makefile which does nothing, but succeeds on all the "usual"
       build targets.  To do so, use

           use ExtUtils::MakeMaker qw(WriteEmptyMakefile);

       instead of WriteMakefile().

       This may be useful if other modules expect this module to be built OK,
       as opposed to work OK (say, this system-dependent module builds in a
       subdirectory of some other distribution, or is listed as a dependency
       in a CPAN::Bundle, but the functionality is supported by different
       means on the current architecture).

   Other Handy Functions
               my $value = prompt($message);
               my $value = prompt($message, $default);

           The "prompt()" function provides an easy way to request user input
           used to write a makefile.  It displays the $message as a prompt for
           input.  If a $default is provided it will be used as a default.
           The function returns the $value selected by the user.

           If "prompt()" detects that it is not running interactively and
           there is nothing on STDIN or if the PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT environment
           variable is set to true, the $default will be used without
           prompting.  This prevents automated processes from blocking on user

           If no $default is provided an empty string will be used instead.

             os_unsupported if $^O eq 'MSWin32';

           The "os_unsupported()" function provides a way to correctly exit
           your "Makefile.PL" before calling "WriteMakefile". It is
           essentially a "die" with the message "OS unsupported".

           This is supported since 7.26

   Supported versions of Perl
       Please note that while this module works on Perl 5.6, it is no longer
       being routinely tested on 5.6 - the earliest Perl version being
       routinely tested, and expressly supported, is 5.8.1. However, patches
       to repair any breakage on 5.6 are still being accepted.


           Command line options used by "MakeMaker->new()", and thus by
           "WriteMakefile()".  The string is split as the shell would, and the
           result is processed before any actual command line arguments are

             PERL_MM_OPT='CCFLAGS="-Wl,-rpath -Wl,/foo/bar/lib" LIBS="-lwibble -lwobble"'

           If set to a true value then MakeMaker's prompt function will always
           return the default without waiting for user input.

           Same as the PERL_CORE parameter.  The parameter overrides this.


       Module::Build(3) is a pure-Perl alternative to MakeMaker which does not
       rely on make or any other external utility.  It may be easier to extend
       to suit your needs.

       Module::Build::Tiny(3) is a minimal pure-Perl alternative to MakeMaker
       that follows the Build.PL protocol of Module::Build but without its
       complexity and cruft, implementing only the installation of the module
       and leaving authoring to mbtiny or other authoring tools.

       Module::Install(3) is a (n) wrapper around MakeMaker
       which adds features not normally available.

       ExtUtils::ModuleMaker(3)  and Module::Starter are both modules to help
       you setup your distribution.

       CPAN::Meta(3) and CPAN::Meta::Spec(3) explain CPAN Meta files in detail.

       File::ShareDir::Install(3) makes it easy to install static, sometimes
       also referred to as 'shared' files. File::ShareDir(3) helps accessing
       the shared files after installation. Test::File::ShareDir(3) helps when
       writing tests to use the shared files both before and after

       Dist::Zilla(3) is an authoring tool which allows great customization
       and extensibility of the author experience, relying on the existing
       install tools like ExtUtils::MakeMaker only for installation.

       Dist::Milla(3)  is a Dist::Zilla bundle that greatly simplifies common

       Minilla(3)  is a minimal authoring tool that does the same things as
       Dist::Milla without the overhead of Dist::Zilla.


       Andy Dougherty "", Andreas Koenig
       "", Tim Bunce "".  VMS support by
       Charles Bailey "".  OS/2 support by Ilya
       Zakharevich "".

       Currently maintained by Michael G Schwern ""

       Send patches and ideas to "".

       Send bug reports via  Please send your generated
       Makefile along with your report.

       For more up-to-date information, see

       Repository available at


       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       See <>

perl v5.34.0                      2021-05-04          ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3pm)

perl 5.34.0 - Generated Tue Mar 1 05:35:36 CST 2022
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