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terminfo(5)                      File formats                      terminfo(5)


       terminfo - terminal capability database




       Terminfo is a database describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), lynx(1), mutt(1), and other curses
       applications, using high-level calls to libraries such as curses(3X).
       It is also used via low-level calls by non-curses applications which
       may be screen-oriented (such as clear(1)) or non-screen (such as

       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding requirements and initialization sequences.

       This document describes ncurses version 6.5 (patch 20240427).

   terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       o   Each field ends with a comma "," (embedded commas may be escaped
           with a backslash or written as "\054").

       o   White space between fields is ignored.

       o   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       o   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from parsed

           The infocmp -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-else
           expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting
           formatted terminal description can be read by tic.

       o   The first field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by "|" characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the
           terminal (its primary name), the last name given should be a long
           name fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and all
           others are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it allows that to be both an alias and a verbose name (but will
           warn about this ambiguity).

       o   Lines beginning with a "#" in the first column are treated as

           While comment lines are valid at any point, the output of captoinfo
           and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments so they occur
           only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware
       making up the terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or
       user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
       suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132-column mode would be vt100-w.  The
       following suffixes should be used where possible:

       Suffix   Example     Meaning
       -nn      aaa-60      Number of lines on the screen
       -np      c100-4p     Number of pages of memory
       -am      vt100-am    With automargins (usually the default)
       -m       ansi-m      Mono mode; suppress color
       -mc      wy30-mc     Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting
       -na      c100-na     No arrow keys (leave them in local)
       -nam     vt100-nam   Without automatic margins
       -nl      hp2621-nl   No status line
       -ns      hp2626-ns   No status line
       -rv      c100-rv     Reverse video
       -s       vt100-s     Enable status line
       -vb      wy370-vb    Use visible bell instead of beep
       -w       vt100-w     Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising the terminal's

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more capability fields.  These are Boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       o   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for Boolean capabilities.

       o   Numeric capabilities have a "#" following the name, then an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       o   String capabilities have a "=" following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just as the
           fields comprising a terminal entry can be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are ignored, blanks embedded
           within a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on a

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the terminal
       entry, by following its name with "@" rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the base) with certain
       exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability
       use can be given with the name of the base terminal:

       o   The capabilities given before use override those in the base type
           named by use.

       o   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse
           order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is processed first,
           then the one to its left, and so forth.

       o   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use
       reference that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example,
       the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the using terminal

   Predefined Capabilities
       Tables of capabilities ncurses recognizes in a terminfo terminal type
       description and available to terminfo-using code follow.

       o   The capability name identifies the symbol by which the programmer
           using the terminfo API accesses the capability.

       o   The TI (terminfo) code is the short name used by a person composing
           or updating a terminal type entry.

           Whenever possible, these codes are the same as or similar to those
           of the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which
           uses identical or very similar names).  Semantics are also intended
           to match those of the specification.

           terminfo codes have no hard length limit, but ncurses maintains an
           informal one of 5 characters to keep them short and to allow the
           tabs in the source file Caps to line up nicely.  (Some standard
           codes exceed this limit regardless.)

       o   The TC (termcap) code is that used by the corresponding API of
           ncurses.  (Some capabilities are new, and have names that BSD
           termcap did not originate.)

       o   The description field attempts to convey the capability's

       The description field employs a handful of notations.

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified.

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              output lines affected.

       #i     indicates the ith parameter of a string capability; the
              programmer should pass the string to tparm(3X) with the
              parameters listed.

              If the description lists no parameters, passing the string to
              tparm(3X) may produce unexpected behavior, for instance if the
              string contains percent signs.

        Boolean Capability Name    TI        TC  Description
        auto_left_margin           bw        bw  cub1 wraps from column 0 to
                                                 last column
        auto_right_margin          am        am  terminal has automatic
        no_esc_ctlc                xsb       xb  beehive (f1=escape, f2=ctrl
        ceol_standout_glitch       xhp       xs  standout not erased by
                                                 overwriting (hp)
        eat_newline_glitch         xenl      xn  newline ignored after 80
                                                 cols (concept)
        erase_overstrike           eo        eo  can erase overstrikes with
                                                 a blank
        generic_type               gn        gn  generic line type
        hard_copy                  hc        hc  hardcopy terminal
        has_meta_key               km        km  Has a meta key (i.e., sets
        has_status_line            hs        hs  has extra status line
        insert_null_glitch         in        in  insert mode distinguishes
        memory_above               da        da  display may be retained
                                                 above the screen
        memory_below               db        db  display may be retained
                                                 below the screen
        move_insert_mode           mir       mi  safe to move while in
                                                 insert mode
        move_standout_mode         msgr      ms  safe to move while in
                                                 standout mode
        over_strike                os        os  terminal can overstrike
        status_line_esc_ok         eslok     es  escape can be used on the
                                                 status line
        dest_tabs_magic_smso       xt        xt  tabs destructive, magic so
                                                 char (t1061)
        tilde_glitch               hz        hz  cannot print ~'s
        transparent_underline      ul        ul  underline character
        xon_xoff                   xon       xo  terminal uses xon/xoff
        needs_xon_xoff             nxon      nx  padding will not work,
                                                 xon/xoff required
        prtr_silent                mc5i      5i  printer will not echo on
        hard_cursor                chts      HC  cursor is hard to see
        non_rev_rmcup              nrrmc     NR  smcup does not reverse
        no_pad_char                npc       NP  pad character does not
        non_dest_scroll_region     ndscr     ND  scrolling region is
        can_change                 ccc       cc  terminal can re-define
                                                 existing colors
        back_color_erase           bce       ut  screen erased with
                                                 background color
        hue_lightness_saturation   hls       hl  terminal uses only HLS
                                                 color notation (Tektronix)
        col_addr_glitch            xhpa      YA  only positive motion for
                                                 hpa/mhpa caps
        cr_cancels_micro_mode      crxm      YB  using cr turns off micro
        has_print_wheel            daisy     YC  printer needs operator to
                                                 change character set
        row_addr_glitch            xvpa      YD  only positive motion for
                                                 vpa/mvpa caps
        semi_auto_right_margin     sam       YE  printing in last column
                                                 causes cr
        cpi_changes_res            cpix      YF  changing character pitch
                                                 changes resolution
        lpi_changes_res            lpix      YG  changing line pitch changes

        Numeric Capability Name    TI        TC  Description
        columns                    cols      co  number of columns in a line
        init_tabs                  it        it  tabs initially every #
        lines                      lines     li  number of lines on screen
                                                 or page
        lines_of_memory            lm        lm  lines of memory if > line.
                                                 0 means varies
        magic_cookie_glitch        xmc       sg  number of blank characters
                                                 left by smso or rmso
        padding_baud_rate          pb        pb  lowest baud rate where
                                                 padding needed
        virtual_terminal           vt        vt  virtual terminal number
        width_status_line          wsl       ws  number of columns in status
        num_labels                 nlab      Nl  number of labels on screen
        label_height               lh        lh  rows in each label
        label_width                lw        lw  columns in each label
        max_attributes             ma        ma  maximum combined attributes
                                                 terminal can handle
        maximum_windows            wnum      MW  maximum number of definable
        max_colors                 colors    Co  maximum number of colors on
        max_pairs                  pairs     pa  maximum number of
                                                 color-pairs on the screen
        no_color_video             ncv       NC  video attributes that
                                                 cannot be used with colors

       The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.

        Numeric Capability Name    TI        TC  Description
        buffer_capacity            bufsz     Ya  numbers of bytes buffered
                                                 before printing
        dot_vert_spacing           spinv     Yb  spacing of pins vertically
                                                 in pins per inch
        dot_horz_spacing           spinh     Yc  spacing of dots
                                                 horizontally in dots per
        max_micro_address          maddr     Yd  maximum value in
        max_micro_jump             mjump     Ye  maximum value in
        micro_col_size             mcs       Yf  character step size when in
                                                 micro mode
        micro_line_size            mls       Yg  line step size when in
                                                 micro mode
        number_of_pins             npins     Yh  numbers of pins in
        output_res_char            orc       Yi  horizontal resolution in
                                                 units per line
        output_res_line            orl       Yj  vertical resolution in
                                                 units per line
        output_res_horz_inch       orhi      Yk  horizontal resolution in
                                                 units per inch
        output_res_vert_inch       orvi      Yl  vertical resolution in
                                                 units per inch
        print_rate                 cps       Ym  print rate in characters
                                                 per second
        wide_char_size             widcs     Yn  character step size when in
                                                 double wide mode
        buttons                    btns      BT  number of buttons on mouse
        bit_image_entwining        bitwin    Yo  number of passes for each
                                                 bit-image row
        bit_image_type             bitype    Yp  type of bit-image device

        String Capability Name     TI        TC  Description
        back_tab                   cbt       bt  back tab (P)
        bell                       bel       bl  audible signal (bell) (P)
        carriage_return            cr        cr  carriage return (P*) (P*)
        change_scroll_region       csr       cs  change region to line #1 to
                                                 line #2 (P)
        clear_all_tabs             tbc       ct  clear all tab stops (P)
        clear_screen               clear     cl  clear screen and home
                                                 cursor (P*)
        clr_eol                    el        ce  clear to end of line (P)
        clr_eos                    ed        cd  clear to end of screen (P*)
        column_address             hpa       ch  horizontal position #1,
                                                 absolute (P)
        command_character          cmdch     CC  terminal settable cmd
                                                 character in prototype !?
        cursor_address             cup       cm  move to row #1 columns #2
        cursor_down                cud1      do  down one line
        cursor_home                home      ho  home cursor (if no cup)
        cursor_invisible           civis     vi  make cursor invisible
        cursor_left                cub1      le  move left one space
        cursor_mem_address         mrcup     CM  memory relative cursor
                                                 addressing, move to row #1
                                                 columns #2
        cursor_normal              cnorm     ve  make cursor appear normal
                                                 (undo civis/cvvis)
        cursor_right               cuf1      nd  non-destructive space (move
                                                 right one space)
        cursor_to_ll               ll        ll  last line, first column (if
                                                 no cup)
        cursor_up                  cuu1      up  up one line
        cursor_visible             cvvis     vs  make cursor very visible
        delete_character           dch1      dc  delete character (P*)
        delete_line                dl1       dl  delete line (P*)
        dis_status_line            dsl       ds  disable status line
        down_half_line             hd        hd  half a line down
        enter_alt_charset_mode     smacs     as  start alternate character
                                                 set (P)
        enter_blink_mode           blink     mb  turn on blinking
        enter_bold_mode            bold      md  turn on bold (extra bright)
        enter_ca_mode              smcup     ti  string to start programs
                                                 using cup
        enter_delete_mode          smdc      dm  enter delete mode
        enter_dim_mode             dim       mh  turn on half-bright mode
        enter_insert_mode          smir      im  enter insert mode
        enter_secure_mode          invis     mk  turn on blank mode
                                                 (characters invisible)
        enter_protected_mode       prot      mp  turn on protected mode
        enter_reverse_mode         rev       mr  turn on reverse video mode
        enter_standout_mode        smso      so  begin standout mode
        enter_underline_mode       smul      us  begin underline mode
        erase_chars                ech       ec  erase #1 characters (P)
        exit_alt_charset_mode      rmacs     ae  end alternate character set
        exit_attribute_mode        sgr0      me  turn off all attributes
        exit_ca_mode               rmcup     te  strings to end programs
                                                 using cup
        exit_delete_mode           rmdc      ed  end delete mode
        exit_insert_mode           rmir      ei  exit insert mode
        exit_standout_mode         rmso      se  exit standout mode
        exit_underline_mode        rmul      ue  exit underline mode
        flash_screen               flash     vb  visible bell (may not move
        form_feed                  ff        ff  hardcopy terminal page
                                                 eject (P*)
        from_status_line           fsl       fs  return from status line
        init_1string               is1       i1  initialization string
        init_2string               is2       is  initialization string
        init_3string               is3       i3  initialization string
        init_file                  if        if  name of initialization file
        insert_character           ich1      ic  insert character (P)
        insert_line                il1       al  insert line (P*)
        insert_padding             ip        ip  insert padding after
                                                 inserted character
        key_backspace              kbs       kb  backspace key
        key_catab                  ktbc      ka  clear-all-tabs key
        key_clear                  kclr      kC  clear-screen or erase key
        key_ctab                   kctab     kt  clear-tab key
        key_dc                     kdch1     kD  delete-character key
        key_dl                     kdl1      kL  delete-line key
        key_down                   kcud1     kd  down-arrow key

        key_eic                    krmir     kM  sent by rmir or smir in
                                                 insert mode
        key_eol                    kel       kE  clear-to-end-of-line key
        key_eos                    ked       kS  clear-to-end-of-screen key
        key_f0                     kf0       k0  F0 function key
        key_f1                     kf1       k1  F1 function key
        key_f10                    kf10      k;  F10 function key
        key_f2                     kf2       k2  F2 function key
        key_f3                     kf3       k3  F3 function key
        key_f4                     kf4       k4  F4 function key
        key_f5                     kf5       k5  F5 function key
        key_f6                     kf6       k6  F6 function key
        key_f7                     kf7       k7  F7 function key
        key_f8                     kf8       k8  F8 function key
        key_f9                     kf9       k9  F9 function key
        key_home                   khome     kh  home key
        key_ic                     kich1     kI  insert-character key
        key_il                     kil1      kA  insert-line key
        key_left                   kcub1     kl  left-arrow key
        key_ll                     kll       kH  lower-left key (home down)
        key_npage                  knp       kN  next-page key
        key_ppage                  kpp       kP  previous-page key
        key_right                  kcuf1     kr  right-arrow key
        key_sf                     kind      kF  scroll-forward key
        key_sr                     kri       kR  scroll-backward key
        key_stab                   khts      kT  set-tab key
        key_up                     kcuu1     ku  up-arrow key
        keypad_local               rmkx      ke  leave keyboard transmit
        keypad_xmit                smkx      ks  enter keyboard transmit
        lab_f0                     lf0       l0  label on function key f0 if
                                                 not f0
        lab_f1                     lf1       l1  label on function key f1 if
                                                 not f1
        lab_f10                    lf10      la  label on function key f10
                                                 if not f10
        lab_f2                     lf2       l2  label on function key f2 if
                                                 not f2
        lab_f3                     lf3       l3  label on function key f3 if
                                                 not f3
        lab_f4                     lf4       l4  label on function key f4 if
                                                 not f4
        lab_f5                     lf5       l5  label on function key f5 if
                                                 not f5
        lab_f6                     lf6       l6  label on function key f6 if
                                                 not f6
        lab_f7                     lf7       l7  label on function key f7 if
                                                 not f7
        lab_f8                     lf8       l8  label on function key f8 if
                                                 not f8
        lab_f9                     lf9       l9  label on function key f9 if
                                                 not f9
        meta_off                   rmm       mo  turn off meta mode
        meta_on                    smm       mm  turn on meta mode (8th-bit
        newline                    nel       nw  newline (behave like cr
                                                 followed by lf)
        pad_char                   pad       pc  padding char (instead of
        parm_dch                   dch       DC  delete #1 characters (P*)
        parm_delete_line           dl        DL  delete #1 lines (P*)
        parm_down_cursor           cud       DO  down #1 lines (P*)
        parm_ich                   ich       IC  insert #1 characters (P*)
        parm_index                 indn      SF  scroll forward #1 lines (P)
        parm_insert_line           il        AL  insert #1 lines (P*)
        parm_left_cursor           cub       LE  move #1 characters to the
                                                 left (P)
        parm_right_cursor          cuf       RI  move #1 characters to the
                                                 right (P*)
        parm_rindex                rin       SR  scroll back #1 lines (P)
        parm_up_cursor             cuu       UP  up #1 lines (P*)
        pkey_key                   pfkey     pk  program function key #1 to
                                                 type string #2
        pkey_local                 pfloc     pl  program function key #1 to
                                                 execute string #2
        pkey_xmit                  pfx       px  program function key #1 to
                                                 transmit string #2
        print_screen               mc0       ps  print contents of screen
        prtr_off                   mc4       pf  turn off printer
        prtr_on                    mc5       po  turn on printer
        repeat_char                rep       rp  repeat char #1 #2 times
        reset_1string              rs1       r1  reset string
        reset_2string              rs2       r2  reset string

        reset_3string              rs3       r3  reset string
        reset_file                 rf        rf  name of reset file
        restore_cursor             rc        rc  restore cursor to position
                                                 of last save_cursor
        row_address                vpa       cv  vertical position #1
                                                 absolute (P)
        save_cursor                sc        sc  save current cursor
                                                 position (P)
        scroll_forward             ind       sf  scroll text up (P)
        scroll_reverse             ri        sr  scroll text down (P)
        set_attributes             sgr       sa  define video attributes
                                                 #1-#9 (PG9)
        set_tab                    hts       st  set a tab in every row,
                                                 current columns
        set_window                 wind      wi  current window is lines
                                                 #1-#2 cols #3-#4
        tab                        ht        ta  tab to next 8-space
                                                 hardware tab stop
        to_status_line             tsl       ts  move to status line, column
        underline_char             uc        uc  underline char and move
                                                 past it
        up_half_line               hu        hu  half a line up
        init_prog                  iprog     iP  path name of program for
        key_a1                     ka1       K1  upper left of keypad
        key_a3                     ka3       K3  upper right of keypad
        key_b2                     kb2       K2  center of keypad
        key_c1                     kc1       K4  lower left of keypad
        key_c3                     kc3       K5  lower right of keypad
        prtr_non                   mc5p      pO  turn on printer for #1
        char_padding               rmp       rP  like ip but when in insert
        acs_chars                  acsc      ac  graphics charset pairs,
                                                 based on vt100
        plab_norm                  pln       pn  program label #1 to show
                                                 string #2
        key_btab                   kcbt      kB  back-tab key
        enter_xon_mode             smxon     SX  turn on xon/xoff
        exit_xon_mode              rmxon     RX  turn off xon/xoff
        enter_am_mode              smam      SA  turn on automatic margins
        exit_am_mode               rmam      RA  turn off automatic margins
        xon_character              xonc      XN  XON character
        xoff_character             xoffc     XF  XOFF character
        ena_acs                    enacs     eA  enable alternate char set
        label_on                   smln      LO  turn on soft labels
        label_off                  rmln      LF  turn off soft labels
        key_beg                    kbeg      @1  begin key
        key_cancel                 kcan      @2  cancel key
        key_close                  kclo      @3  close key
        key_command                kcmd      @4  command key
        key_copy                   kcpy      @5  copy key
        key_create                 kcrt      @6  create key
        key_end                    kend      @7  end key
        key_enter                  kent      @8  enter/send key
        key_exit                   kext      @9  exit key
        key_find                   kfnd      @0  find key
        key_help                   khlp      %1  help key
        key_mark                   kmrk      %2  mark key
        key_message                kmsg      %3  message key
        key_move                   kmov      %4  move key
        key_next                   knxt      %5  next key
        key_open                   kopn      %6  open key
        key_options                kopt      %7  options key
        key_previous               kprv      %8  previous key
        key_print                  kprt      %9  print key
        key_redo                   krdo      %0  redo key
        key_reference              kref      &1  reference key
        key_refresh                krfr      &2  refresh key
        key_replace                krpl      &3  replace key
        key_restart                krst      &4  restart key
        key_resume                 kres      &5  resume key
        key_save                   ksav      &6  save key
        key_suspend                kspd      &7  suspend key
        key_undo                   kund      &8  undo key

        key_sbeg                   kBEG      &9  shifted begin key
        key_scancel                kCAN      &0  shifted cancel key
        key_scommand               kCMD      *1  shifted command key
        key_scopy                  kCPY      *2  shifted copy key
        key_screate                kCRT      *3  shifted create key
        key_sdc                    kDC       *4  shifted delete-character
        key_sdl                    kDL       *5  shifted delete-line key
        key_select                 kslt      *6  select key
        key_send                   kEND      *7  shifted end key
        key_seol                   kEOL      *8  shifted
                                                 clear-to-end-of-line key
        key_sexit                  kEXT      *9  shifted exit key
        key_sfind                  kFND      *0  shifted find key
        key_shelp                  kHLP      #1  shifted help key
        key_shome                  kHOM      #2  shifted home key
        key_sic                    kIC       #3  shifted insert-character
        key_sleft                  kLFT      #4  shifted left-arrow key
        key_smessage               kMSG      %a  shifted message key
        key_smove                  kMOV      %b  shifted move key
        key_snext                  kNXT      %c  shifted next key
        key_soptions               kOPT      %d  shifted options key
        key_sprevious              kPRV      %e  shifted previous key
        key_sprint                 kPRT      %f  shifted print key
        key_sredo                  kRDO      %g  shifted redo key
        key_sreplace               kRPL      %h  shifted replace key
        key_sright                 kRIT      %i  shifted right-arrow key
        key_srsume                 kRES      %j  shifted resume key
        key_ssave                  kSAV      !1  shifted save key
        key_ssuspend               kSPD      !2  shifted suspend key
        key_sundo                  kUND      !3  shifted undo key
        req_for_input              rfi       RF  send next input char (for
        key_f11                    kf11      F1  F11 function key
        key_f12                    kf12      F2  F12 function key
        key_f13                    kf13      F3  F13 function key
        key_f14                    kf14      F4  F14 function key
        key_f15                    kf15      F5  F15 function key
        key_f16                    kf16      F6  F16 function key
        key_f17                    kf17      F7  F17 function key
        key_f18                    kf18      F8  F18 function key
        key_f19                    kf19      F9  F19 function key
        key_f20                    kf20      FA  F20 function key
        key_f21                    kf21      FB  F21 function key
        key_f22                    kf22      FC  F22 function key
        key_f23                    kf23      FD  F23 function key
        key_f24                    kf24      FE  F24 function key
        key_f25                    kf25      FF  F25 function key
        key_f26                    kf26      FG  F26 function key
        key_f27                    kf27      FH  F27 function key
        key_f28                    kf28      FI  F28 function key
        key_f29                    kf29      FJ  F29 function key
        key_f30                    kf30      FK  F30 function key
        key_f31                    kf31      FL  F31 function key
        key_f32                    kf32      FM  F32 function key
        key_f33                    kf33      FN  F33 function key
        key_f34                    kf34      FO  F34 function key
        key_f35                    kf35      FP  F35 function key
        key_f36                    kf36      FQ  F36 function key
        key_f37                    kf37      FR  F37 function key
        key_f38                    kf38      FS  F38 function key
        key_f39                    kf39      FT  F39 function key
        key_f40                    kf40      FU  F40 function key
        key_f41                    kf41      FV  F41 function key
        key_f42                    kf42      FW  F42 function key

        key_f43                    kf43      FX  F43 function key
        key_f44                    kf44      FY  F44 function key
        key_f45                    kf45      FZ  F45 function key
        key_f46                    kf46      Fa  F46 function key
        key_f47                    kf47      Fb  F47 function key
        key_f48                    kf48      Fc  F48 function key
        key_f49                    kf49      Fd  F49 function key
        key_f50                    kf50      Fe  F50 function key
        key_f51                    kf51      Ff  F51 function key
        key_f52                    kf52      Fg  F52 function key
        key_f53                    kf53      Fh  F53 function key
        key_f54                    kf54      Fi  F54 function key
        key_f55                    kf55      Fj  F55 function key
        key_f56                    kf56      Fk  F56 function key
        key_f57                    kf57      Fl  F57 function key
        key_f58                    kf58      Fm  F58 function key
        key_f59                    kf59      Fn  F59 function key
        key_f60                    kf60      Fo  F60 function key
        key_f61                    kf61      Fp  F61 function key
        key_f62                    kf62      Fq  F62 function key
        key_f63                    kf63      Fr  F63 function key
        clr_bol                    el1       cb  Clear to beginning of line
        clear_margins              mgc       MC  clear right and left soft
        set_left_margin            smgl      ML  set left soft margin at
                                                 current column (not in BSD
        set_right_margin           smgr      MR  set right soft margin at
                                                 current column
        label_format               fln       Lf  label format
        set_clock                  sclk      SC  set clock, #1 hrs #2 mins
                                                 #3 secs
        display_clock              dclk      DK  display clock
        remove_clock               rmclk     RC  remove clock
        create_window              cwin      CW  define a window #1 from
                                                 #2,#3 to #4,#5
        goto_window                wingo     WG  go to window #1
        hangup                     hup       HU  hang-up phone
        dial_phone                 dial      DI  dial number #1
        quick_dial                 qdial     QD  dial number #1 without
        tone                       tone      TO  select touch tone dialing
        pulse                      pulse     PU  select pulse dialing
        flash_hook                 hook      fh  flash switch hook
        fixed_pause                pause     PA  pause for 2-3 seconds
        wait_tone                  wait      WA  wait for dial-tone
        user0                      u0        u0  User string #0
        user1                      u1        u1  User string #1
        user2                      u2        u2  User string #2
        user3                      u3        u3  User string #3
        user4                      u4        u4  User string #4
        user5                      u5        u5  User string #5
        user6                      u6        u6  User string #6
        user7                      u7        u7  User string #7
        user8                      u8        u8  User string #8
        user9                      u9        u9  User string #9
        orig_pair                  op        op  Set default pair to its
                                                 original value
        orig_colors                oc        oc  Set all color pairs to the
                                                 original ones
        initialize_color           initc     Ic  initialize color #1 to
        initialize_pair            initp     Ip  Initialize color pair #1 to
        set_color_pair             scp       sp  Set current color pair to
        set_foreground             setf      Sf  Set foreground color #1
        set_background             setb      Sb  Set background color #1
        change_char_pitch          cpi       ZA  Change number of characters
                                                 per inch to #1
        change_line_pitch          lpi       ZB  Change number of lines per
                                                 inch to #1
        change_res_horz            chr       ZC  Change horizontal
                                                 resolution to #1
        change_res_vert            cvr       ZD  Change vertical resolution
                                                 to #1
        define_char                defc      ZE  Define a character #1, #2
                                                 dots wide, descender #3
        enter_doublewide_mode      swidm     ZF  Enter double-wide mode

        enter_draft_quality        sdrfq     ZG  Enter draft-quality mode
        enter_italics_mode         sitm      ZH  Enter italic mode
        enter_leftward_mode        slm       ZI  Start leftward carriage
        enter_micro_mode           smicm     ZJ  Start micro-motion mode
        enter_near_letter_quality  snlq      ZK  Enter NLQ mode
        enter_normal_quality       snrmq     ZL  Enter normal-quality mode
        enter_shadow_mode          sshm      ZM  Enter shadow-print mode
        enter_subscript_mode       ssubm     ZN  Enter subscript mode
        enter_superscript_mode     ssupm     ZO  Enter superscript mode
        enter_upward_mode          sum       ZP  Start upward carriage
        exit_doublewide_mode       rwidm     ZQ  End double-wide mode
        exit_italics_mode          ritm      ZR  End italic mode
        exit_leftward_mode         rlm       ZS  End left-motion mode
        exit_micro_mode            rmicm     ZT  End micro-motion mode
        exit_shadow_mode           rshm      ZU  End shadow-print mode
        exit_subscript_mode        rsubm     ZV  End subscript mode
        exit_superscript_mode      rsupm     ZW  End superscript mode
        exit_upward_mode           rum       ZX  End reverse character
        micro_column_address       mhpa      ZY  Like column_address in
                                                 micro mode
        micro_down                 mcud1     ZZ  Like cursor_down in micro
        micro_left                 mcub1     Za  Like cursor_left in micro
        micro_right                mcuf1     Zb  Like cursor_right in micro
        micro_row_address          mvpa      Zc  Like row_address #1 in
                                                 micro mode
        micro_up                   mcuu1     Zd  Like cursor_up in micro
        order_of_pins              porder    Ze  Match software bits to
                                                 print-head pins
        parm_down_micro            mcud      Zf  Like parm_down_cursor in
                                                 micro mode
        parm_left_micro            mcub      Zg  Like parm_left_cursor in
                                                 micro mode
        parm_right_micro           mcuf      Zh  Like parm_right_cursor in
                                                 micro mode
        parm_up_micro              mcuu      Zi  Like parm_up_cursor in
                                                 micro mode
        select_char_set            scs       Zj  Select character set, #1
        set_bottom_margin          smgb      Zk  Set bottom margin at
                                                 current line
        set_bottom_margin_parm     smgbp     Zl  Set bottom margin at line
                                                 #1 or (if smgtp is not
                                                 given) #2 lines from bottom
        set_left_margin_parm       smglp     Zm  Set left (right) margin at
                                                 column #1
        set_right_margin_parm      smgrp     Zn  Set right margin at column
        set_top_margin             smgt      Zo  Set top margin at current
        set_top_margin_parm        smgtp     Zp  Set top (bottom) margin at
                                                 row #1
        start_bit_image            sbim      Zq  Start printing bit image
        start_char_set_def         scsd      Zr  Start character set
                                                 definition #1, with #2
                                                 characters in the set
        stop_bit_image             rbim      Zs  Stop printing bit image
        stop_char_set_def          rcsd      Zt  End definition of character
                                                 set #1
        subscript_characters       subcs     Zu  List of subscriptable
        superscript_characters     supcs     Zv  List of superscriptable
        these_cause_cr             docr      Zw  Printing any of these
                                                 characters causes CR
        zero_motion                zerom     Zx  No motion for subsequent

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.

        String Capability Name     TI        TC  Description
        char_set_names             csnm      Zy  Produce #1'th item from
                                                 list of character set names
        key_mouse                  kmous     Km  Mouse event has occurred
        mouse_info                 minfo     Mi  Mouse status information
        req_mouse_pos              reqmp     RQ  Request mouse position
        get_mouse                  getm      Gm  Curses should get button
                                                 events, parameter #1 not
        set_a_foreground           setaf     AF  Set foreground color to #1,
                                                 using ANSI escape
        set_a_background           setab     AB  Set background color to #1,
                                                 using ANSI escape
        pkey_plab                  pfxl      xl  Program function key #1 to
                                                 type string #2 and show
                                                 string #3
        device_type                devt      dv  Indicate language, codeset
        code_set_init              csin      ci  Init sequence for multiple
        set0_des_seq               s0ds      s0  Shift to codeset 0 (EUC set
                                                 0, ASCII)
        set1_des_seq               s1ds      s1  Shift to codeset 1
        set2_des_seq               s2ds      s2  Shift to codeset 2
        set3_des_seq               s3ds      s3  Shift to codeset 3
        set_lr_margin              smglr     ML  Set both left and right
                                                 margins to #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                 not in BSD termcap).
        set_tb_margin              smgtb     MT  Sets both top and bottom
                                                 margins to #1, #2
        bit_image_repeat           birep     Xy  Repeat bit image cell #1 #2
        bit_image_newline          binel     Zz  Move to next row of the bit
        bit_image_carriage_return  bicr      Yv  Move to beginning of same
        color_names                colornm   Yw  Give name for color #1
        define_bit_image_region    defbi     Yx  Define rectangular bit
                                                 image region
        end_bit_image_region       endbi     Yy  End a bit-image region
        set_color_band             setcolor  Yz  Change to ribbon color #1
        set_page_length            slines    YZ  Set page length to #1 lines
        display_pc_char            dispc     S1  Display PC character #1
        enter_pc_charset_mode      smpch     S2  Enter PC character display
        exit_pc_charset_mode       rmpch     S3  Exit PC character display
        enter_scancode_mode        smsc      S4  Enter PC scancode mode
        exit_scancode_mode         rmsc      S5  Exit PC scancode mode
        pc_term_options            pctrm     S6  PC terminal options
        scancode_escape            scesc     S7  Escape for scancode
        alt_scancode_esc           scesa     S8  Alternate escape for
                                                 scancode emulation

       The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They were
       used in some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5
       and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for them are
       invented.  According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap
       names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be
       binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

        String Capability Name     TI        TC  Description
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode   ehhlm     Xh  Enter horizontal highlight
        enter_left_hl_mode         elhlm     Xl  Enter left highlight mode
        enter_low_hl_mode          elohlm    Xo  Enter low highlight mode
        enter_right_hl_mode        erhlm     Xr  Enter right highlight mode
        enter_top_hl_mode          ethlm     Xt  Enter top highlight mode
        enter_vertical_hl_mode     evhlm     Xv  Enter vertical highlight
        set_a_attributes           sgr1      sA  Define second set of video
                                                 attributes #1-#6
        set_pglen_inch             slength   YI  Set page length to #1
                                                 hundredth of an inch (some
                                                 implementations use sL for

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly never)
       produced.  Occasionally there are special features of newer terminals
       which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the predefined

       ncurses addresses this limitation by allowing user-defined
       capabilities.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for
       this purpose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-
       defined.  That is, if tic encounters a capability name which it does
       not recognize, it infers its type (Boolean, number or string) from the
       syntax and makes an extended table entry for that capability.  The
       use_extended_names(3X) function makes this information conditionally
       available to applications.  The ncurses library provides the data
       leaving most of the behavior to applications:

       o   User-defined capability strings whose name begins with "k" are
           treated as function keys.

       o   The types (Boolean, number, string) determined by tic can be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a
       predefined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the
       capabilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule, user-
       defined capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be
       limited to Booleans and numbers to avoid running past the 1023 byte
       limit assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In
       particular, providing extended sets of function keys (past the 60
       numbered keys and the handful of special named keys) is best done using
       the longer names available using terminfo.

       The ncurses library uses a few of these user-defined capabilities, as
       described in user_caps(5).  Other user-defined capabilities (including
       function keys) are described in the terminal database, in the section

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is
       representative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically
       looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the
       beginning of each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
           particular feature,

       o   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       o   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used to
           perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-
       feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities
       are followed by the character "#" and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal, using the C programming language
       conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character code, an "=", and then a
       string ending at the next following ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       o   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space,


       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate x" might be.  In practice,
       that is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case "^?" is
       interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character value is
       AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through

       Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
           See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of
           the compiled terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4 systems, which document this.  Compiled terminfo files use
           null-terminated strings, with no lengths.  Modifying this would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with other

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       o   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of
           precision; it may be followed by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.

       o   A "*" indicates that the padding required is proportional to the
           number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is
           the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of insert
           character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       o   A "/" suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       Terminal descriptions in ncurses are stored in terminal databases.
       These databases, which are found by their pathname, may be configured
       either as directory trees or hashed databases (see term(5)),

       The library uses a compiled-in list of pathnames, which can be
       overridden by environment variables.  Before starting to search,
       ncurses checks the search list, eliminating duplicates and pathnames
       where no terminal database is found.  The ncurses library reads the
       first description which passes its consistency checks.

       o   The environment variable TERMINFO is checked first, for a terminal
           database containing the terminal description.

       o   Next, ncurses looks in $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

           This is an optional feature which may be omitted entirely from the
           library, or limited to prevent accidental use by privileged

       o   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
           interprets the contents of that variable as a list of colon-
           separated pathnames of terminal databases to be searched.

           An empty pathname (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with a
           colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the system
           location /opt/local/share/terminfo.

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a list of directories (/opt/local/share/terminfo), and

           o   the system terminfo directory, /opt/local/share/terminfo

       The TERMINFO variable can contain a terminal description instead of the
       pathname of a terminal database.  If this variable begins with "hex:"
       or "b64:" then ncurses reads a terminal description from hexadecimal-
       or base64-encoded data, and if that description matches the name
       sought, will use that.  This encoded data can be set using the "-Q"
       option of tic or infocmp.

       The preceding addresses the usual configuration of ncurses, which uses
       terminal descriptions prepared in terminfo format.  While termcap is
       less expressive, ncurses can also be configured to read termcap
       descriptions.  In that configuration, it checks the TERMCAP and
       TERMPATH variables (for content and search path, respectively) after
       the system terminal database.

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar terminal in terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware that
       a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit a large file at 9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of
       lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches the
       right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then
       this is given by the clear string capability.  If the terminal
       overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a character is struck
       over) then it should have the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to move the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control/M.)  If there is a code to
       produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes
       to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass
       over, for example, you would not normally use "cuf1= " because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion which is defined
       from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given,
       the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first
       column of the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).
       It does not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current
       line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty"
       terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the
       terminal are described by a parameterized string capability, with
       printf-like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the
       cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and
       column to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and
       refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen
       memory.)  If the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that
       can be indicated by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a sequence will push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is a
       special case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from
       the stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are often
       necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

            as in printf(3), flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":" to allow
            the next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as
            an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not reset between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations:

            o   SVr2 curses supported dynamic variables.  Those are set only
                by a %P operator.  A %g for a given variable without first
                setting it with %P will give unpredictable results, because
                dynamic variables are an uninitialized local array on the
                stack in the tparm function.

            o   SVr3.2 curses supported static variables.  Those are an array
                in the TERMINAL structure (declared in term.h), and are zeroed
                automatically when the setupterm function allocates the data.

            o   SVr4 curses made no further improvements to the dynamic/static
                variable feature.

            o   Solaris XPG4 curses does not distinguish between dynamic and
                static variables.  They are the same.  Like SVr4 curses, XPG4
                curses does not initialize these explicitly.

            o   Before version 6.3, ncurses stores both dynamic and static
                variables in persistent storage, initialized to zeros.

            o   Beginning with version 6.3, ncurses stores static and dynamic
                variables in the same manner as SVr4.

                o   Unlike other implementations, ncurses zeros dynamic
                    variables before the first %g or %P operator.

                o   Like SVr2, the scope of dynamic variables in ncurses is
                    within the current call to tparm.  Use static variables if
                    persistent storage is needed.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack, and %t pops it
            from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
            (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-
            then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The -f option splits the string into lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g
       variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  The order of the rows and
       columns is inverted here, and the row and column are printed as two
       digits.  The corresponding terminal description is expressed thus:

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in binary,

       Terminals which use "%c" need to be able to backspace the cursor
       (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).  This
       is necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as
       the system may change or discard them.  (The library routines dealing
       with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is
       safe to send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus
              cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c

       After sending "\E=", this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII
       value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in
       place of the two previous values) and outputs that value as a
       character.  Then the same is done for the second parameter.  More
       complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note that the
       home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left
       corner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP
       terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are
       parameterized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to the right) these
       can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter
       indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the
       terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative
       cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the
       terminal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for
       the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to be the
       one used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not restore the
       screen after an rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to
       outputting rmcup), specify nrrmc.

       SVr4 (and X/Open Curses) list several string capabilities for setting
       margins.  Two were intended for use with terminals, and another six
       were intended for use with printers.

       o   The two terminal capabilities assume that the terminal may have the
           capability of setting the left and/or right margin at the current
           cursor column position.

       o   The printer capabilities assume that the printer may have two types
           of capability:

           o   the ability to set a top and/or bottom margin using the current
               line position, and

           o   parameterized capabilities for setting the top, bottom, left,
               right margins given the number of rows or columns.

       In practice, the categorization into "terminal" and "printer" is not

       o   The AT&T SVr4 terminal database uses smgl four times, for AT&T

           Three of the four are printers.  They lack the ability to set
           left/right margins by specifying the column.

       o   Other (non-AT&T) terminals may support margins but using different
           assumptions from AT&T.

           For instance, the DEC VT420 supports left/right margins, but only
           using a column parameter.  As an added complication, the VT420 uses
           two settings to fully enable left/right margins (left/right margin
           mode, and origin mode).  The former enables the margins, which
           causes printed text to wrap within margins, but the latter is
           needed to prevent cursor-addressing outside those margins.

       o   Both DEC VT420 left/right margins are set with a single control
           sequence.  If either is omitted, the corresponding margin is set to
           the left or right edge of the display (rather than leaving the
           margin unmodified).

       These are the margin-related capabilities:

                 Name    Description
                 smgl    Set left margin at current column
                 smgr    Set right margin at current column
                 smgb    Set bottom margin at current line
                 smgt    Set top margin at current line
                 smgbp   Set bottom margin at line N
                 smglp   Set left margin at column N
                 smgrp   Set right margin at column N
                 smgtp   Set top margin at line N
                 smglr   Set both left and right margins to L and R
                 smgtb   Set both top and bottom margins to T and B

       When writing an application that uses these string capabilities, the
       pairs should be first checked to see if each capability in the pair is
       set or only one is set:

       o   If both smglp and smgrp are set, each is used with a single
           argument, N, that gives the column number of the left and right
           margin, respectively.

       o   If both smgtp and smgbp are set, each is used to set the top and
           bottom margin, respectively:

           o   smgtp is used with a single argument, N, the line number of the
               top margin.

           o   smgbp is used with two arguments, N and M, that give the line
               number of the bottom margin, the first counting from the top of
               the page and the second counting from the bottom.  This
               accommodates the two styles of specifying the bottom margin in
               different manufacturers' printers.

           When designing a terminfo entry for a printer that has a settable
           bottom margin, only the first or second argument should be used,
           depending on the printer.  When developing an application that uses
           smgbp to set the bottom margin, both arguments must be given.

       Conversely, when only one capability in the pair is set:

       o   If only one of smglp and smgrp is set, then it is used with two
           arguments, the column number of the left and right margins, in that

       o   Likewise, if only one of smgtp and smgbp is set, then it is used
           with two arguments that give the top and bottom margins, in that
           order, counting from the top of the page.

           When designing a terminfo entry for a printer that requires setting
           both left and right or top and bottom margins simultaneously, only
           one capability in the pairs smglp and smgrp or smgtp and smgbp
           should be defined, leaving the other unset.

       Except for very old terminal descriptions, e.g., those developed for
       SVr4, the scheme just described should be considered obsolete.  An
       improved set of capabilities was added late in the SVr4 releases (smglr
       and smgtb), which explicitly use two parameters for setting the
       left/right or top/bottom margins.

       When setting margins, the line- and column-values are zero-based.

       The mgc string capability should be defined.  Applications such as
       tabs(1) rely upon this to reset all margins.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not

   Insert/Delete Line and Vertical Motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)
       commands may be useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library
       does this synthesis automatically, so you need not compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a
       combination of index with the memory-lock feature found on some
       terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done
       using ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The Boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling
       window is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test
       for this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the
       screen, write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top
       of the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled
       off the bottom of the region by the ri re-appears, then scrolling is
       non-destructive.  System V and X/Open Curses expect that ind, ri, indn,
       and rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation
       cautions you not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses
       implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases after
       scrolling if ndsrc is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then db
       should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be described using terminfo.  The
       most common insert/delete character operations affect only the
       characters on the current line and shift characters off the end of the
       line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin
       Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the
       screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on
       the screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen
       and then typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the "abc" and the
       "def".  Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
       in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the line to
       shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks and untyped positions.  If the
       "abc" shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the
       second type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which
       stands for "insert null".

       While these are two logically separate attributes (one line versus
       multi-line insert mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically, you should not give both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some non-curses
       applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement is now rare;
       most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new
       curses actually assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry
       to be used under new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal needs both to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1
       can be given, and both will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete ncharacters, and delete mode by giving smdc
       and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal needs to
       be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You should choose one
       display form as standout mode, representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for highlighting error messages and other
       attention getters.  (If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and
       exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode leaves one or even two
       blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate character set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either zero (0) or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute
       is on or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline,
       reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set.
       Not all modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which
       corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

                   tparm Parameter   Attribute    Escape Sequence
                   none              none         \E[0m
                   p1                standout     \E[0;1;7m
                   p2                underline    \E[0;4m
                   p3                reverse      \E[0;7m
                   p4                blink        \E[0;5m
                   p5                dim          not available
                   p6                bold         \E[0;1m
                   p7                invis        \E[0;8m
                   p8                protect      not used
                   p9                altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
       there is no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220
       terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr
       because it protects characters on the screen from the host's erasures.
       The altcharset mode also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is
       output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if either standout or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

                 Sequence   When to Output      terminfo Translation
                 \E[0       always              \E[0
                 ;1         if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
                 ;4         if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
                 ;5         if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
                 ;7         if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
                 ;8         if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
                 m          always              m
                 ^N or ^O   if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all
       terminfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many
       terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr
       string.  The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also
       assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit special
       "cookies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
       display algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.
       Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode
       when they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor
       or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.
       Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow,
       and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys
       have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the labels can be
       given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,
       kc1, and kc3.  These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.  The difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as the user typing the given
       string; pfloc causes the string to be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is
       normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       A few capabilities are used only for tabs:

       o   If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the
           next tab stop can be given as ht (usually control/I).

       o   A "back-tab" command which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop
           can be given as cbt.

           By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
           expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal,
           programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since
           the user may not have the tab stops properly set.

       o   If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every n
           spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it is
           given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.

           The it capability is normally used by the tset command to determine
           whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to
           set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved
           in non-volatile memory, the terminfo description can assume that
           they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include

       o   is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal,

       o   iprog, the path name of a program to be run to initialize the

       o   and if, the name of a file containing long initialization strings.

       These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent
       with the rest of the terminfo description.  They are normally sent to
       the terminal, by the init option of the tput program, each time the
       user logs in.  They will be printed in the following order:

              run the program

                     is1 and

              set the margins using
                     mgc or
                     smglp and smgrp or
                     smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally output

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by reset option of
       tput, or by the reset program (an alias of tset), which is used when
       the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in
       rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying effects on the screen
       and are not necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set
       the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it
       causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not normally needed
       since the terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If
       any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization
       capability string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

       The tput reset command uses the same capability strings as the reset
       command, although the two programs (tput and reset) provide different
       command-line options.

       In practice, these terminfo capabilities are not often used in
       initialization of tabs (though they are required for the tabs program):

       o   Almost all hardware terminals (at least those which supported tabs)
           initialized those to every eight columns:

           The only exception was the AT&T 2300 series, which set tabs to
           every five columns.

       o   In particular, developers of the hardware terminals which are
           commonly used as models for modern terminal emulators provided
           documentation demonstrating that eight columns were the standard.

       o   Because of this, the terminal initialization programs tput and tset
           use the tbc (clear_all_tabs) and hts (set_tab) capabilities
           directly only when the it (init_tabs) capability is set to a value
           other than eight.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding
       characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are
       close to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices
       effectively that do not have a speed limit.  Padding information should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about
       relative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra "status line" which is not normally used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status
       line.  The capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor
       positions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values
       of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to
       accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The Boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of the drawing
       characters supported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T
       4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified by the
       acsc capability.

         ACS Name      Value  Symbol   ASCII Fallback / Glyph
         ACS_RARROW    0x2b     +      >  arrow pointing right
         ACS_LARROW    0x2c     ,      <  arrow pointing left
         ACS_UARROW    0x2d     -      ^  arrow pointing up
         ACS_DARROW    0x2e     .      v  arrow pointing down
         ACS_BLOCK     0x30     0      #  solid square block
         ACS_DIAMOND   0x60     `      +  diamond
         ACS_CKBOARD   0x61     a      :  checker board (stipple)
         ACS_DEGREE    0x66     f      \  degree symbol
         ACS_PLMINUS   0x67     g      #  plus/minus
         ACS_BOARD     0x68     h      #  board of squares
         ACS_LANTERN   0x69     i      #  lantern symbol
         ACS_LRCORNER  0x6a     j      +  lower right corner
         ACS_URCORNER  0x6b     k      +  upper right corner
         ACS_ULCORNER  0x6c     l      +  upper left corner
         ACS_LLCORNER  0x6d     m      +  lower left corner
         ACS_PLUS      0x6e     n      +  large plus or crossover
         ACS_S1        0x6f     o      ~  scan line 1
         ACS_S3        0x70     p      -  scan line 3
         ACS_HLINE     0x71     q      -  horizontal line
         ACS_S7        0x72     r      -  scan line 7
         ACS_S9        0x73     s      _  scan line 9
         ACS_LTEE      0x74     t      +  tee pointing right
         ACS_RTEE      0x75     u      +  tee pointing left
         ACS_BTEE      0x76     v      +  tee pointing up
         ACS_TTEE      0x77     w      +  tee pointing down
         ACS_VLINE     0x78     x      |  vertical line
         ACS_LEQUAL    0x79     y      <  less-than-or-equal-to
         ACS_GEQUAL    0x7a     z      >  greater-than-or-equal-to
         ACS_PI        0x7b     {      *  greek pi
         ACS_NEQUAL    0x7c     |      !  not-equal
         ACS_STERLING  0x7d     }      f  UK pound sign
         ACS_BULLET    0x7e     ~      o  bullet

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       o   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping for lantern is
           uppercase "I" although Unix implementations use the lowercase "i"

       o   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate character
           set feature, temporarily switching modes and sending characters in
           the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc Value column in the

       o   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some of the characters within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal: board of squares
           replaces the VT100 newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters (horizontal tab, carriage return and line-feed) are not
           (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       The curses library functions init_pair and init_color manipulate the
       color pairs and color values discussed in this section (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like":

       o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into N * N color pairs.

       o   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color pair up
           separately (foreground and background are not independently
           settable).  Up to M color pairs may be set up from 2*M different
           colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color pairs to their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the
       current background color rather than the power-up default background;
       these should have the Boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the
       inability of some devices to set foreground and background colors
       independently), there are separate capabilities for setting these

       o   To change the current foreground or background color on a
           Tektronix-type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI foreground) and setab
           (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set
           background).  These take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4
           documentation describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that
           "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded as setaf and setab,

       o   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb,
           respectively.  The vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions use the
           setaf and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric
       argument each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined
       as follows (the middle column is the symbolic #define available in the
       header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal
       locations in color space.

                    Color      #define       Value          RGB
                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0,   0,   0
                   red       COLOR_RED         1     max, 0,   0
                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,   max, 0
                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max, max, 0
                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,   0,   max
                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max, 0,   max
                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,   max, max
                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max, max, max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    Color      #define       Value          RGB
                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0,   0,   0
                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,   0,   max
                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,   max, 0
                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,   max, max
                   red       COLOR_RED         4     max, 0,   0
                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max, 0,   max
                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max, max, 0
                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max, max, max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities;
       otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       o   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to
           indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability
           will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters
           which describe the color.  These three parameters default to being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the Boolean
           capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       o   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a
           color pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color pair
           number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first
           background and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be
           (Red, Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can
       register these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit mask
       of attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The
       correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

                         Attribute     Bit   Decimal   Set by
                        A_STANDOUT      0         1    sgr
                        A_UNDERLINE     1         2    sgr
                        A_REVERSE       2         4    sgr
                        A_BLINK         3         8    sgr
                        A_DIM           4        16    sgr
                        A_BOLD          5        32    sgr
                        A_INVIS         6        64    sgr
                        A_PROTECT       7       128    sgr
                        A_ALTCHARSET    8       256    sgr
                        A_HORIZONTAL    9       512    sgr1
                        A_LEFT         10      1024    sgr1
                        A_LOW          11      2048    sgr1
                        A_RIGHT        12      4096    sgr1
                        A_TOP          13      8192    sgr1
                        A_VERTICAL     14     16384    sgr1
                        A_ITALIC       15     32768    sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is not available in color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily
       useful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a
       hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as
       ff (usually control/L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical
       characters) this can be indicated with the parameterized string rep.
       The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is
       the number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is
       the same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some Unix systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with
       km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it
       will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode" on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the Unix virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4:
       turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the
       parameter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed
       255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer
       while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Brain Damage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
       this is now "dest_tabs_magic_smso"; in older versions, it was
       teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a "magic cookie", that to
       erase standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and insert
       line.  The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control/C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control/C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more
       capabilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.
       Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly limited
       (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
       the application and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is searching for is,
       several bad things can happen:

       o   some termcap libraries print a warning message,

       o   some exit if they find an entry that's longer than 1023 bytes,

       o   some neither exit nor warn, doing nothing useful, and

       o   some simply truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.

       Some application programs allocate more than the recommended 1K for the
       termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now

       o   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
           the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
           if it is the entry it wants,

       o   and tgetent is searching for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long entry, or
           does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
       core dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly
       vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type
       automatically.  The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap
       library, like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages
       when it reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap library
       truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but
       will return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since tgetent only does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even before
       "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.


              compiled terminal description database directory


       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or X/Open Curses.  They are deduced from the
       documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants
       to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like
       xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-bit values.  This
       includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.  The 32768 mask value
       used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of X/Open Curses and (in some cases) different extensions.
       Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995, after which the
       commercial Unix market contracted and lost diversity.

       o   SVr4, Solaris, and ncurses support all SVr4 capabilities.

       o   IRIX supports the SVr4 set and adds one undocumented extended
           string capability (set_pglen).

       o   SVr1 and Ultrix support a restricted subset of terminfo
           capabilities.  The Booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       o   HP/UX supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus a number
           of incompatible string table extensions.

       o   AIX supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       o   OSF/1 supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


       Do not count on compiled (binary) terminfo entries being portable
       between commercial Unix systems.  At least two implementations of
       terminfo (those of HP-UX and AIX) diverged from those of other System V
       Unices after SVr1, adding extension capabilities to the string table
       that (in the binary format) collide with subsequent System V and X/Open
       Curses extensions.


       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.


       infocmp(1M), tabs(1), tic(1M), curses(3X), curs_color(3X),
       terminfo(5), curs_variables(3X), printf(3), term_variables(3X),
       term(5), user_caps(5)

ncurses 6.5                       2024-04-20                       terminfo(5)

ncurses 6.5 - Generated Tue May 7 16:12:06 CDT 2024
© 2000-2024
Individual documents may contain additional copyright information.