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sendmail(1)                                                        sendmail(1)




NAME

       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface


SYNOPSIS

       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I


DESCRIPTION

       The Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to Sendmail com-
       patibility interface.  For the  sake  of  compatibility  with  existing
       applications,  some  Sendmail  command-line  options are recognized but
       silently ignored.

       By default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a  message  from  standard  input
       until  EOF  or  until  it  reads  a  line  with only a . character, and
       arranges for delivery.  Postfix sendmail(1) relies on  the  postdrop(1)
       command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific  command aliases are provided for other common modes of opera-
       tion:

       mailq  List the mail queue. Each entry shows the queue file ID, message
              size,  arrival  time, sender, and the recipients that still need
              to be delivered.  If mail could not be delivered upon  the  last
              attempt, the reason for failure is shown. The queue ID string is
              followed by an optional status character:

              *      The message is in the active queue, i.e. the  message  is
                     selected for delivery.

              !      The  message is in the hold queue, i.e. no further deliv-
                     ery attempt will be made until  the  mail  is  taken  off
                     hold.

              This   mode   of  operation  is  implemented  by  executing  the
              postqueue(1) command.

       newaliases
              Initialize the alias database.  If no input  file  is  specified
              (with  the  -oA  option,  see  below), the program processes the
              file(s) specified with the alias_database configuration  parame-
              ter.   If  no alias database type is specified, the program uses
              the type specified with the default_database_type  configuration
              parameter.  This mode of operation is implemented by running the
              postalias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so before an alias database update
              becomes  visible.  Use the "postfix reload" command to eliminate
              this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the  appropriate
       combination  of  command-line  options. Some features are controlled by
       parameters in the main.cf configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
              Postfix sendmail uses the same configuration file regardless  of
              whether or not a message is an initial submission.

       -B body_type
              The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go  into  daemon  mode. This mode of operation is implemented by
              executing the "postfix start" command.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -bl    Go into daemon mode. To accept only local  connections  as  with
              Sendmail's  -bl  option, specify "inet_interfaces = loopback" in
              the Postfix main.cf configuration file.

       -bm    Read mail from standard input and arrange for delivery.  This is
              the default mode of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone  SMTP  server mode. Read SMTP commands from standard
              input, and write responses to standard output.   In  stand-alone
              SMTP  server  mode,  mail relaying and other access controls are
              disabled by default. To enable them,  run  the  process  as  the
              mail_owner user.

              This  mode  of  operation is implemented by running the smtpd(8)
              daemon.

       -bv    Do not collect or deliver a  message.  Instead,  send  an  email
              report  after  verifying each recipient address.  This is useful
              for testing address rewriting and routing configurations.

              This feature is available in Postfix version 2.1 and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
              The path name of the Postfix main.cf  file,  or  of  its  parent
              directory.  This  information  is  ignored with Postfix versions
              before 2.3.

              With Postfix version 3.2 and later, a non-default directory must
              be  authorized  in  the default main.cf file, through the alter-
              nate_config_directories  or  multi_instance_directories  parame-
              ters.

              With  all Postfix versions, you can specify a directory pathname
              with the MAIL_CONFIG environment variable to override the  loca-
              tion of configuration files.

       -F full_name
              Set  the  sender  full name. This overrides the NAME environment
              variable, and is used only with messages that have no From: mes-
              sage header.

       -f sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is the address where
              delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
              the   Errors-To:  message  header  overrides  the  error  return
              address.

       -G     Gateway (relay) submission, as opposed to initial  user  submis-
              sion.   Either do not rewrite addresses at all, or update incom-
              plete addresses  with  the  domain  information  specified  with
              remote_header_rewrite_domain.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop  count limit. Use the hopcount_limit configuration parameter
              instead.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -i     When reading a message from standard input, don't treat  a  line
              with only a . character as the end of input.

       -L label (ignored)
              The  logging  label. Use the syslog_name configuration parameter
              instead.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery  status  notification   control.   Specify   either   a
              comma-separated list with one or more of failure (send notifica-
              tion when delivery fails), delay (send notification when  deliv-
              ery  is delayed), or success (send notification when the message
              is delivered); or specify never (don't send any notifications at
              all).

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default  alias  database. Specify pathname or type:pathname.
              See postalias(1) for details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
              Set the named option to value. Use the equivalent  configuration
              parameter in main.cf instead.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To  send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate MIME encap-
              sulation and specify the appropriate -B command-line option.

       -oi    When reading a message from standard input, don't treat  a  line
              with only a . character as the end of input.

       -om (ignored)
              The sender is never eliminated from alias etc. expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set  option x to value. Use the equivalent configuration parame-
              ter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
              Set the envelope sender  address.  This  is  the  address  where
              delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
              the  Errors-To:  message  header  overrides  the  error   return
              address.

       -R return
              Delivery  status notification control.  Specify "hdrs" to return
              only the header when a message bounces, "full" to return a  full
              copy (the default behavior).

              The -R option specifies an upper bound; Postfix will return only
              the header, when a full copy would exceed the  bounce_size_limit
              setting.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.10.

       -q     Attempt  to deliver all queued mail. This is implemented by exe-
              cuting the postqueue(1) command.

              Warning: flushing undeliverable mail frequently will  result  in
              poor delivery performance of all other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The interval between queue runs. Use the queue_run_delay config-
              uration parameter instead.

       -qIqueueid
              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.
              This  option  is  implemented by executing the postqueue(1) com-
              mand, and is available with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

       -qRsite
              Schedule immediate delivery of all mail that is queued  for  the
              named  site. This option accepts only site names that are eligi-
              ble for the "fast flush" service, and is implemented by  execut-
              ing the postqueue(1) command.  See flush(8) for more information
              about the "fast flush" service.

       -qSsite
              This command is not implemented. Use the  slower  "sendmail  -q"
              command instead.

       -t     Extract  recipients from message headers. These are added to any
              recipients specified on the command line.

              With Postfix versions prior to 2.1, this option requires that no
              recipient addresses are specified on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V envid
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support
              DSN.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
              Variable Envelope Return Path. Given an envelope sender  address
              of  the  form  owner-listname@origin, each recipient user@domain
              receives mail with a personalized envelope sender address.

              By  default,  the  personalized  envelope  sender   address   is
              owner-listname+user=domain@origin.  The  default + and = charac-
              ters are configurable with the default_verp_delimiters  configu-
              ration parameter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
              As  -XV,  but  uses  x  and  y as the VERP delimiter characters,
              instead of the characters specified with the default_verp_delim-
              iters configuration parameter.

       -v     Send an email report of the first delivery attempt (Postfix ver-
              sions 2.1 and later). Mail delivery always happens in the  back-
              ground.  When multiple -v options are given, enable verbose log-
              ging for debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log mailer traffic. Use the debug_peer_list and debug_peer_level
              configuration parameters instead.


SECURITY

       By design, this program is not set-user (or group) id. However, it must
       handle data from untrusted, possibly remote, users.   Thus,  the  usual
       precautions need to be taken against malicious inputs.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Problems are logged to syslogd(8) and to the standard error stream.


ENVIRONMENT

       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
              Enable debugging with an external command, as specified with the
              debugger_command configuration parameter.

       NAME   The sender full name. This is used only with messages that  have
              no From: message header. See also the -F option above.


CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS

       The  following  main.cf parameters are especially relevant to this pro-
       gram.  The text below provides only  a  parameter  summary.  See  post-
       conf(5) for more details including examples.


COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS

       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       sendmail_fix_line_endings (always)
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command converts email message
              line endings from <CR><LF> into UNIX format (<LF>).


TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS

       The DEBUG_README file gives examples of how to trouble shoot a  Postfix
       system.

       debugger_command (empty)
              The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is
              invoked with the -D option.

       debug_peer_level (2)
              The increment in verbose logging level when a remote  client  or
              server matches a pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
              Optional  list  of  remote  client or server hostname or network
              address  patterns  that  cause  the  verbose  logging  level  to
              increase by the amount specified in $debug_peer_level.


ACCESS CONTROLS

       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to flush the queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
              List  of  users who are authorized to submit mail with the send-
              mail(1) command (and with the privileged postdrop(1) helper com-
              mand).


RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS

       bounce_size_limit (50000)
              The  maximal  amount  of original message text that is sent in a
              non-delivery notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
              The maximal number of attempts to fork() a child process.

       fork_delay (1s)
              The delay between attempts to fork() a child process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
              The maximal number of Received:  message headers that is allowed
              in the primary message headers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
              The  time  between  deferred  queue  scans by the queue manager;
              prior to Postfix 2.4 the default value was 1000s.


FAST FLUSH CONTROLS

       The ETRN_README file describes configuration and operation details  for
       the Postfix "fast flush" service.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for per-destina-
              tion logfiles with mail that is queued to those destinations.


VERP CONTROLS

       The VERP_README file describes configuration and operation  details  of
       Postfix support for variable envelope return path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
              The  characters  Postfix accepts as VERP delimiter characters on
              the Postfix sendmail(1) command line and in SMTP commands.


MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS

       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The alias databases for local(8) delivery that are updated  with
              "newaliases" or with "sendmail -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  default  location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf con-
              figuration files.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default database type for use in newaliases(1), postalias(1)
              and postmap(1) commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
              The time after which the sender receives a copy of  the  message
              headers of mail that is still queued.

       import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  list  of  environment  parameters that a privileged Postfix
              process will  import  from  a  non-Postfix  parent  process,  or
              name=value environment overrides.

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The  UNIX  system  account  that owns the Postfix queue and most
              Postfix daemon processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
              Don't rewrite message headers from remote clients  at  all  when
              this  parameter is empty; otherwise, rewrite message headers and
              append the specified domain name to incomplete addresses.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              A prefix that  is  prepended  to  the  process  name  in  syslog
              records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd".

       Postfix 3.2 and later:

       alternate_config_directories (empty)
              A list of non-default Postfix configuration directories that may
              be specified with "-c config_directory" on the command line  (in
              the case of sendmail(1), with "-C config_directory"), or via the
              MAIL_CONFIG environment parameter.

       multi_instance_directories (empty)
              An optional list of non-default Postfix  configuration  directo-
              ries;  these  directories belong to additional Postfix instances
              that share the Postfix executable files and  documentation  with
              the  default  Postfix  instance,  and that are started, stopped,
              etc., together with the default Postfix instance.


FILES

       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files


SEE ALSO

       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue control
       syslogd(8), system logging


README_FILES

       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to  locate
       this information.
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto


LICENSE

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.


AUTHOR(S)

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

       Wietse Venema
       Google, Inc.
       111 8th Avenue
       New York, NY 10011, USA



                                                                   sendmail(1)

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