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This manual is itself covered by the GNU Free Documentation License. This license is similar in spirit to the General Public License, but is more suitable for documentation. See section GNU Free Documentation License.


On MS-Windows and MS-DOS systems, where a user doesn't have a home directory, Emacs replaces ‘~/’ with the value of the environment variable HOME; see General Variables. On these systems, the ‘~user-id/’ construct is supported only for the current user, i.e., only if user-id is the current user's login name.


Buffers which don't visit files and whose names begin with a space are omitted: these are used internally by Emacs.


Some systems use Mouse-3 for a mode-specific menu. We took a survey of users, and found they preferred to keep Mouse-3 for selecting and killing regions. Hence the decision to use C-Mouse-3 for this menu. To use Mouse-3 instead, do (global-set-key [mouse-3] 'mouse-popup-menubar-stuff).


Placing it at the left is usually more useful with overlapping frames with text starting at the left margin.


If you run Emacs on X, you need to inform the X server about the location of the newly installed fonts with the following commands:

 xset fp+ /usr/local/share/emacs/fonts
 xset fp rehash


If more than one of these is set, the first one that is nonempty specifies your locale for this purpose.


In the MS-DOS port of Emacs, you need to create a cpnnn coding system with M-x codepage-setup, before you can use it. See section International Support on MS-DOS.


It is also specified for MIME ‘text/*’ bodies and in other network transport contexts. It is different from the SGML reference syntax record-start/record-end format which Emacs doesn't support directly.


The Emacs installation instructions have information on additional font support.


SliTeX is obsoleted by the ‘slides’ document class and other alternative packages in recent LaTeX versions.


The word “sexp” is used to refer to an expression in Lisp.


On some systems, the man program accepts a ‘-a’ command-line option which tells it to display all the man pages for the specified topic. If you want this behavior, you can add this option to the value of the variable Man-switches.


The name of the command, woman, is an acronym for “w/o (without) man,” since it doesn't use the man program.


This command had the binding C-c C-d in earlier versions of Emacs. C-c C-d is now bound to c-hungry-delete-forward.


On a text-only terminal, the arrow appears as ‘=>’ and overlays the first two text columns.


The US National Security Agency.


You should not suspend the shell process. Suspending a subjob of the shell is a completely different matter—that is normal practice, but you must use the shell to continue the subjob; this command won't do it.


On MS-Windows, if HOME is not set or the TCP configuration file cannot be found there, Emacs also looks for the file in the ‘.emacs.d/server/’ subdirectory of the directory pointed to by the APPDATA environment variable.


This dissociword actually appeared during the Vietnam War, when it was very appropriate. Bush has made it appropriate again.


This option has no effect on MS-Windows.


Here and below, whenever we say “colon-separated list of directories,” it pertains to Unix and GNU/Linux systems. On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, the directories are separated by semi-colons instead, since DOS/Windows file names might include a colon after a drive letter.


The check in ‘C:\’ is in preference to the application data directory for compatibility with older versions of Emacs, which didn't check the application data directory.


Some combinations of the “Windows” keys with other keys are caught by Windows at low level in a way that Emacs currently cannot prevent. For example, <Lwindow> r always pops up the Windows ‘Run’ dialog. Customizing the value of w32-phantom-key-code might help in some cases, though.


Note that the ‘net use’ command requires the UNC share name to be typed with the Windows-style backslashes, while the value of printer-name can be set with either forward- or backslashes.


Normally, one particular codepage is burnt into the display memory, while other codepages can be installed by modifying system configuration files, such as ‘CONFIG.SYS’, and rebooting. While there is third-party software that allows changing the codepage without rebooting, we describe here how a stock MS-DOS system behaves.


The standard Emacs coding systems for ISO 8859 are not quite right for the purpose, because typically the DOS codepage does not match the standard ISO character codes. For example, the letter ‘ç’ (‘c’ with cedilla) has code 231 in the standard Latin-1 character set, but the corresponding DOS codepage 850 uses code 135 for this glyph.


The wording here was careless. The intention was that nobody would have to pay for permission to use the GNU system. But the words don't make this clear, and people often interpret them as saying that copies of GNU should always be distributed at little or no charge. That was never the intent; later on, the manifesto mentions the possibility of companies providing the service of distribution for a profit. Subsequently I have learned to distinguish carefully between “free” in the sense of freedom and “free” in the sense of price. Free software is software that users have the freedom to distribute and change. Some users may obtain copies at no charge, while others pay to obtain copies—and if the funds help support improving the software, so much the better. The important thing is that everyone who has a copy has the freedom to cooperate with others in using it.


This is another place I failed to distinguish carefully between the two different meanings of “free.” The statement as it stands is not false—you can get copies of GNU software at no charge, from your friends or over the net. But it does suggest the wrong idea.


Several such companies now exist.


The Free Software Foundation raises most of its funds from a distribution service, although it is a charity rather than a company. If no one chooses to obtain copies by ordering from the FSF, it will be unable to do its work. But this does not mean that proprietary restrictions are justified to force every user to pay. If a small fraction of all the users order copies from the FSF, that is sufficient to keep the FSF afloat. So we ask users to choose to support us in this way. Have you done your part?


A group of computer companies recently pooled funds to support maintenance of the GNU C Compiler.


In the 80s I had not yet realized how confusing it was to speak of “the issue” of “intellectual property.” That term is obviously biased; more subtle is the fact that it lumps together various disparate laws which raise very different issues. Nowadays I urge people to reject the term “intellectual property” entirely, lest it lead others to suppose that those laws form one coherent issue. The way to be clear is to discuss patents, copyrights, and trademarks separately. See for more explanation of how this term spreads confusion and bias.


Subsequently we have discovered the need to distinguish between “free software” and “freeware”. The term “freeware” means software you are free to redistribute, but usually you are not free to study and change the source code, so most of it is not free software. See for more explanation.

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