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curl(1)                           curl Manual                          curl(1)


NAME

       curl - transfer a URL


SYNOPSIS

       curl [options / URLs]


DESCRIPTION

       curl is a tool for transferring data from or to a server using URLs. It
       supports these protocols: DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, GOPHERS, HTTP,
       HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, MQTT, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP,
       SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET, TFTP, WS and WSS.

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See
       libcurl(3) for details.


URL

       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You find a detailed description
       in RFC 3986.

       If you provide a URL without a leading protocol:// scheme, curl guesses
       what protocol you want. It then defaults to HTTP but assumes others
       based on often-used hostname prefixes. For example, for hostnames
       starting with "ftp."  curl assumes you want FTP.

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They are
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order unless you use
       -Z, --parallel. You can specify command line options and URLs mixed and
       in any order on the command line.

       curl attempts to reuse connections when doing multiple transfers, so
       that getting many files from the same server do not use multiple
       connects and setup handshakes. This improves speed. Connection reuse
       can only be done for URLs specified for a single command line
       invocation and cannot be performed between separate curl runs.

       Provide an IPv6 zone id in the URL with an escaped percentage sign.
       Like in

       "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       Everything provided on the command line that is not a command line
       option or its argument, curl assumes is a URL and treats it as such.


GLOBBING

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing lists within
       braces or ranges within brackets. We call this "globbing".

       Provide a list with three different names like this:

       "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       Do sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

       "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

       With leading zeroes:

       "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"

       With letters through the alphabet:

       "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

       "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
       or letter:

       "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

       "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line prompt,
       you probably have to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also goes for other characters
       treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Switch off globbing with -g, --globoff.


VARIABLES

       curl supports command line variables (added in 8.3.0). Set variables
       with --variable name=content or --variable name@file (where "file" can
       be stdin if set to a single dash (-)).

       Variable contents can be expanded in option parameters using "{{name}}"
       if the option name is prefixed with "--expand-". This gets the contents
       of the variable "name" inserted, or a blank if the name does not exist
       as a variable. Insert "{{" verbatim in the string by prefixing it with
       a backslash, like "\{{".

       You an access and expand environment variables by first importing them.
       You can select to either require the environment variable to be set or
       you can provide a default value in case it is not already set. Plain
       --variable %name imports the variable called 'name' but exits with an
       error if that environment variable is not already set. To provide a
       default value if it is not set, use --variable %name=content or
       --variable %name@content.

       Example. Get the USER environment variable into the URL, fail if USER
       is not set:

       --variable '%USER'
       --expand-url = "https://example.com/api/{{USER}}/method"

       When expanding variables, curl supports a set of functions that can
       make the variable contents more convenient to use. It can trim leading
       and trailing white space with "trim", it can output the contents as a
       JSON quoted string with "json", URL encode the string with "url" or
       base64 encode it with "b64".  To apply functions to a variable
       expansion, add them colon separated to the right side of the variable.
       Variable content holding null bytes that are not encoded when expanded
       cause error.

       Example: get the contents of a file called $HOME/.secret into a
       variable called "fix". Make sure that the content is trimmed and
       percent-encoded when sent as POST data:

       --variable %HOME
       --expand-variable fix@{{HOME}}/.secret
       --expand-data "{{fix:trim:url}}"
       https://example.com/

       Command line variables and expansions were added in 8.3.0.


OUTPUT

       If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. It can
       be instructed to instead save that data into a local file, using the
       -o, --output or -O, --remote-name options. If curl is given multiple
       URLs to transfer on the command line, it similarly needs multiple
       options for where to save them.

       curl does not parse or otherwise "understand" the content it gets or
       writes as output. It does no encoding or decoding, unless explicitly
       asked to with dedicated command line options.


PROTOCOLS

       curl supports numerous protocols, or put in URL terms: schemes. Your
       particular build may not support them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read or write local files. curl does not support accessing
              file:// URL remotely, but when running on Microsoft Windows
              using the native UNC approach works.

       FTP(S) curl supports the File Transfer Protocol with a lot of tweaks
              and levers. With or without using TLS.

       GOPHER(S)
              Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
              curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It can
              speak HTTP version 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 2 and 3 depending on build
              options and the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
              Using the mail reading protocol, curl can download emails for
              you. With or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
              curl can do directory lookups for you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading over MQTT equals
              subscribe to a topic while uploading/posting equals publish on a
              topic. MQTT over TLS is not supported (yet).

       POP3(S)
              Downloading from a pop3 server means getting a mail. With or
              without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
              The Realtime Messaging Protocol is primarily used to serve
              streaming media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH version 2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft 5) done over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB version 1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
              Uploading contents to an SMTP server means sending an email.
              With or without TLS.

       TELNET Fetching a telnet URL starts an interactive session where it
              sends what it reads on stdin and outputs what the server sends
              it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.


PROGRESS METER

       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating
       the amount of transferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays the transfer rate in bytes per
       second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024 based. For example 1k is
       1024 bytes. 1M is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke
       curl to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o,
       --output or similar.

       This does not apply to FTP upload as that operation does not spit out
       any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress bar instead of the regular meter, -#,
       --progress-bar is your friend. You can also disable the progress meter
       completely with the -s, --silent option.


VERSION

       This man page describes curl 8.7.1. If you use a later version, chances
       are this man page does not fully document it. If you use an earlier
       version, this document tries to include version information about which
       specific version that introduced changes.

       You can always learn which the latest curl version is by running

       curl https://curl.se/info

       The online version of this man page is always showing the latest
       incarnation: https://curl.se/docs/manpage.html


OPTIONS

       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the options require an
       additional value next to them. If provided text does not start with a
       dash, it is presumed to be and treated as a URL.

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d for example, may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended separator. The long double-dash form, -d, --data for
       example, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that do not need any additional values can be
       used immediately next to each other, like for example you can specify
       all the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the same option name but
       prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show the --option version of them.

       When -:, --next is used, it resets the parser state and you start again
       with a clean option state, except for the options that are global.
       Global options retain their values and meaning even after -:, --next.

       The following options are global: --fail-early, --libcurl,
       --parallel-immediate, -Z, --parallel, -#, --progress-bar, --rate, -S,
       --show-error, --stderr, --styled-output, --trace-ascii, --trace-config,
       --trace-ids, --trace-time, --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP) Connect through an abstract Unix domain socket, instead
              of using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path of an
              abstract socket prefixed with "@", however the <path> argument
              should not have this leading character.

              If --abstract-unix-socket is provided several times, the last
              set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --abstract-unix-socket socketpath https://example.com

              See also --unix-socket. Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <filename>
              (HTTPS) Enable the alt-svc parser. If the filename points to an
              existing alt-svc cache file, that gets used. After a completed
              transfer, the cache is saved to the filename again if it has
              been modified.

              Specify a "" filename (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
              make curl just handle the cache in memory.

              If this option is used several times, curl loads contents from
              all the files but the last one is used for saving.

              --alt-svc can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --alt-svc svc.txt https://example.com

              See also --resolve and --connect-to. Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Figure out authentication method automatically, and use
              the most secure one the remote site claims to support. This is
              done by first doing a request and checking the response-headers,
              thus possibly inducing an extra network round-trip. This option
              is used instead of setting a specific authentication method,
              which you can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
              --negotiate.

              Using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin,
              since it may require data to be sent twice and then the client
              must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when uploading
              from stdin, the upload operation fails.

              Used together with -u, --user.

              Providing --anyauth multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --anyauth --user me:pwd https://example.com

              See also --proxy-anyauth, --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
              (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this option makes curl append
              to the target file instead of overwriting it. If the remote file
              does not exist, it is created. Note that this flag is ignored by
              some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

              Providing --append multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-append.

              Example:
               curl --upload-file local --append ftp://example.com/

              See also -r, --range and -C, --continue-at.

       --aws-sigv4 <provider1[:prvdr2[:reg[:srv]]]>
              (HTTP) Use AWS V4 signature authentication in the transfer.

              The provider argument is a string that is used by the algorithm
              when creating outgoing authentication headers.

              The region argument is a string that points to a geographic area
              of a resources collection (region-code) when the region name is
              omitted from the endpoint.

              The service argument is a string that points to a function
              provided by a cloud (service-code) when the service name is
              omitted from the endpoint.

              If --aws-sigv4 is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --aws-sigv4 "aws:amz:us-east-2:es" --user "key:secret" https://example.com

              See also --basic and -u, --user. Added in 7.75.0.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Use HTTP Basic authentication with the remote host. This
              method is the default and this option is usually pointless,
              unless you use it to override a previously set option that sets
              a different authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or
              --negotiate).

              Used together with -u, --user.

              Providing --basic multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl -u name:password --basic https://example.com

              See also --proxy-basic.

       --ca-native
              (TLS) Use the CA store from the native operating system to
              verify the peer. By default, curl otherwise uses a CA store
              provided in a single file or directory, but when using this
              option it interfaces the operating system's own vault.

              This option works for curl on Windows when built to use OpenSSL,
              wolfSSL (added in 8.3.0) or GnuTLS (added in 8.5.0). When curl
              on Windows is built to use Schannel, this feature is implied and
              curl then only uses the native CA store.

              Providing --ca-native multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ca-native.

              Example:
               curl --ca-native https://example.com

              See also --cacert, --capath and -k, --insecure. Added in 8.2.0.

       --cacert <file>
              (TLS) Use the specified certificate file to verify the peer. The
              file may contain multiple CA certificates. The certificate(s)
              must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to use a default
              file for this, so this option is typically used to alter that
              default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
              if it is set and the TLS backend is not Schannel, and uses the
              given path as a path to a CA cert bundle. This option overrides
              that variable.

              The windows version of curl automatically looks for a CA certs
              file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same directory as
              curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any folder
              along your PATH.

              (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then this option is supported for backward compatibility with
              other SSL engines, but it should not be set. If the option is
              not set, then curl uses the certificates in the system and user
              Keychain to verify the peer, which is the preferred method of
              verifying the peer's certificate chain.

              (Schannel only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
              7 or later (added in 7.60.0). This option is supported for
              backward compatibility with other SSL engines; instead it is
              recommended to use Windows' store of root certificates (the
              default for Schannel).

              If --cacert is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --cacert CA-file.txt https://example.com

              See also --capath and -k, --insecure.

       --capath <dir>
              (TLS) Use the specified certificate directory to verify the
              peer. Multiple paths can be provided by separated with colon
              (":") (e.g. "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must be in
              PEM format, and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the directory
              must have been processed using the c_rehash utility supplied
              with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to
              make SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert
              if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value is ignored.

              If --capath is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --capath /local/directory https://example.com

              See also --cacert and -k, --insecure.

       --cert-status
              (TLS) Verify the status of the server certificate by using the
              Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS extension.

              If this option is enabled and the server sends an invalid (e.g.
              expired) response, if the response suggests that the server
              certificate has been revoked, or no response at all is received,
              the verification fails.

              This support is currently only implemented in the OpenSSL and
              GnuTLS backends.

              Providing --cert-status multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-cert-status.

              Example:
               curl --cert-status https://example.com

              See also --pinnedpubkey.

       --cert-type <type>
              (TLS) Set type of the provided client certificate. PEM, DER, ENG
              and P12 are recognized types.

              The default type depends on the TLS backend and is usually PEM,
              however for Secure Transport and Schannel it is P12. If -E,
              --cert is a pkcs11: URI then ENG is the default type.

              If --cert-type is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --cert-type PEM --cert file https://example.com

              See also -E, --cert, --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (TLS) Use the specified client certificate file when getting a
              file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The
              certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if using Secure Transport,
              or PEM format if using any other engine. If the optional
              password is not specified, it is queried for on the terminal.
              Note that this option assumes a certificate file that is the
              private key and the client certificate concatenated. See -E,
              --cert and --key to specify them independently.

              In the <certificate> portion of the argument, you must escape
              the character ":" as "\:" so that it is not recognized as the
              password delimiter. Similarly, you must escape the double quote
              character as \" so that it is not recognized as an escape
              character.

              If curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine pkcs11
              is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to
              specify a certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string
              beginning with "pkcs11:" is interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
              PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option is set as
              "pkcs11" if none was provided and the --cert-type option is set
              as "ENG" if none was provided.

              (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then the certificate string can either be the name of a
              certificate/private key in the system or user keychain, or the
              path to a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If you
              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
              with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              (Schannel only) Client certificates must be specified by a path
              expression to a certificate store. (Loading PFX is not
              supported; you can import it to a store first). You can use
              "<store location>\<store name>\<thumbprint>" to refer to a
              certificate in the system certificates store, for example,
              "CurrentUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".
              Thumbprint is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see in
              certificate details. Following store locations are supported:
              CurrentUser, LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,
              CurrentUserGroupPolicy, LocalMachineGroupPolicy and
              LocalMachineEnterprise.

              If --cert is provided several times, the last set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --cert certfile --key keyfile https://example.com

              See also --cert-type, --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher
              list details on this URL:

              https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If --ciphers is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3, --tls13-ciphers and --proxy-ciphers.

       --compressed-ssh
              (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression. This is a request,
              not an order; the server may or may not do it.

              Providing --compressed-ssh multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-compressed-ssh.

              Example:
               curl --compressed-ssh sftp://example.com/

              See also --compressed. Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              curl supports, and automatically decompress the content.

              Response headers are not modified when saved, so if they are
              "interpreted" separately again at a later point they might
              appear to be saying that the content is (still) compressed;
              while in fact it has already been decompressed.

              If this option is used and the server sends an unsupported
              encoding, curl reports an error. This is a request, not an
              order; the server may or may not deliver data compressed.

              Providing --compressed multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-compressed.

              Example:
               curl --compressed https://example.com

              See also --compressed-ssh.

       -K, --config <file>
              Specify a text file to read curl arguments from. The command
              line arguments found in the text file are used as if they were
              provided on the command line.

              Options and their parameters must be specified on the same line
              in the file, separated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
              Long option names can optionally be given in the config file
              without the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals
              characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified
              with one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals
              character between the option and its parameter.

              If the parameter contains whitespace or starts with a colon (:)
              or equals sign (=), it must be specified enclosed within double
              quotes ("like this"). Within double quotes the following escape
              sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash
              preceding any other letter is ignored.

              If the first non-blank column of a config line is a '#'
              character, that line is treated as a comment.

              Only write one option per physical line in the config file. A
              single line is required to be no more than 10 megabytes (since
              8.2.0).

              Specify the filename to -K, --config as minus "-" to make curl
              read the file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
              need to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply
              writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to
              this:

              url = "https://curl.se/docs/"

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "example.com"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              When curl is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is used) checks
              for a default config file and uses it if found, even when -K,
              --config is used. The default config file is checked for in the
              following places in this order:

              1) "$CURL_HOME/.curlrc"

              2) "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/curlrc" (Added in 7.73.0)

              3) "$HOME/.curlrc"

              4) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\.curlrc"

              5) Windows: "%APPDATA%\.curlrc"

              6) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\.curlrc"

              7) Non-Windows: use getpwuid to find the home directory

              8) On Windows, if it finds no .curlrc file in the sequence
              described above, it checks for one in the same directory the
              curl executable is placed.

              On Windows two filenames are checked per location: .curlrc and
              _curlrc, preferring the former. Older versions on Windows
              checked for _curlrc only.

              --config can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --config file.txt https://example.com

              See also -q, --disable.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl's connection to
              take. This only limits the connection phase, so if curl connects
              within the given period it continues - if not it exits.

              This option accepts decimal values. The decimal value needs to
              be provided using a dot (.) as decimal separator - not the local
              version even if it might be using another separator.

              The connection phase is considered complete when the DNS lookup
              and requested TCP, TLS or QUIC handshakes are done.

              If --connect-timeout is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Examples:
               curl --connect-timeout 20 https://example.com
               curl --connect-timeout 3.14 https://example.com

              See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>
              For a request intended for the "HOST1:PORT1" pair, connect to
              "HOST2:PORT2" instead. This option is only used to establish the
              network connection. It does NOT affect the hostname/port number
              that is used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or
              for the application protocols.

              "HOST1" and "PORT1" may be empty strings, meaning any host or
              any port number.  "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be empty strings,
              meaning use the request's original hostname and port number.

              A hostname specified to this option is compared as a string, so
              it needs to match the name used in request URL. It can be either
              numerical such as "127.0.0.1" or the full host name such as
              "example.org".

              --connect-to can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --connect-to example.com:443:example.net:8443 https://example.com

              See also --resolve and -H, --header.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Resume a previous transfer from the given byte offset. The given
              offset is the exact number of bytes that are skipped, counting
              from the beginning of the source file before it is transferred
              to the destination. If used with uploads, the FTP server command
              SIZE is not used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to instruct curl to automatically find out where/how
              to resume the transfer. It then uses the given output/input
              files to figure that out.

              If --continue-at is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Examples:
               curl -C - https://example.com
               curl -C 400 https://example.com

              See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar <filename>
              (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies
              after a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
              in-memory cookie storage to the given file at the end of
              operations. Even if no cookies are known, a file is created so
              that it removes any formerly existing cookies from the file. The
              file uses the Netscape cookie file format. If you set the
              filename to a single minus, "-", the cookies are written to
              stdout.

              The file specified with -c, --cookie-jar is only used for
              output. No cookies are read from the file. To read cookies, use
              the -b, --cookie option. Both options can specify the same file.

              This command line option activates the cookie engine that makes
              curl record and use cookies. The -b, --cookie option also
              activates it.

              If the cookie jar cannot be created or written to, the whole
              curl operation does not fail or even report an error clearly.
              Using -v, --verbose gets a warning displayed, but that is the
              only visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal
              situation.

              If --cookie-jar is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl -c store-here.txt https://example.com
               curl -c store-here.txt -b read-these https://example.com

              See also -b, --cookie.

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
              is supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
              "Set-Cookie:" line. The data should be in the format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2" or as a single filename.

              When given a set of specific cookies and not a filename, it
              makes curl use the cookie header with this content explicitly in
              all outgoing request(s). If multiple requests are done due to
              authentication, followed redirects or similar, they all get this
              cookie header passed on.

              If no "=" symbol is used in the argument, it is instead treated
              as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This option
              also activates the cookie engine which makes curl record
              incoming cookies, which may be handy if you are using this in
              combination with the -L, --location option or do multiple URL
              transfers on the same invoke.

              If the filename is a single minus ("-"), curl reads the contents
              from stdin.  If the filename is an empty string ("") and is the
              only cookie input, curl activates the cookie engine without any
              cookies.

              The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
              HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie
              file format.

              The file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as input. No
              cookies are written to that file. To store cookies, use the -c,
              --cookie-jar option.

              If you use the Set-Cookie file format and do not specify a
              domain then the cookie is not sent since the domain never
              matches. To address this, set a domain in Set-Cookie line (doing
              that includes subdomains) or preferably: use the Netscape
              format.

              Users often want to both read cookies from a file and write
              updated cookies back to a file, so using both -b, --cookie and
              -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line is common.

              If curl is built with PSL (Public Suffix List) support, it
              detects and discards cookies that are specified for such suffix
              domains that should not be allowed to have cookies. If curl is
              not built with PSL support, it has no ability to stop super
              cookies.

              --cookie can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -b "" https://example.com
               curl -b cookiefile https://example.com
               curl -b cookiefile -c cookiefile https://example.com
               curl -b name=Jane https://example.com

              See also -c, --cookie-jar and -j, --junk-session-cookies.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o, --output option, curl
              creates the necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This
              option creates the directories mentioned with the -o, --output
              option combined with the path possibly set with --output-dir. If
              the combined output filename uses no directory, or if the
              directories it mentions already exist, no directories are
              created.

              Created directories are made with mode 0750 on unix style file
              systems.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try
              --ftp-create-dirs.

              Providing --create-dirs multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-create-dirs.

              Example:
               curl --create-dirs --output local/dir/file https://example.com

              See also --ftp-create-dirs and --output-dir.

       --create-file-mode <mode>
              (SFTP SCP FILE) When curl is used to create files remotely using
              one of the supported protocols, this option allows the user to
              set which 'mode' to set on the file at creation time, instead of
              the default 0644.

              This option takes an octal number as argument.

              If --create-file-mode is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --create-file-mode 0777 -T localfile sftp://example.com/new

              See also --ftp-create-dirs. Added in 7.75.0.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP) Convert line feeds to carriage return plus line feeds
              in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

              (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

              Providing --crlf multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-crlf.

              Example:
               curl --crlf -T file ftp://example.com/

              See also -B, --use-ascii.

       --crlfile <file>
              (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate
              Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that are to
              be considered revoked.

              If --crlfile is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --crlfile rejects.txt https://example.com

              See also --cacert and --capath.

       --curves <list>
              (TLS) Set specific curves to use during SSL session
              establishment according to RFC 8422, 5.1. Multiple algorithms
              can be provided by separating them with ":" (e.g.
              "X25519:P-521"). The parameter is available identically in the
              OpenSSL "s_client" and "s_server" utilities.

              --curves allows a OpenSSL powered curl to make SSL-connections
              with exactly the (EC) curve requested by the client, avoiding
              nontransparent client/server negotiations.

              If this option is set, the default curves list built into
              OpenSSL are ignored.

              If --curves is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --curves X25519 https://example.com

              See also --ciphers. Added in 7.73.0.

       --data-ascii <data>
              (HTTP) This option is just an alias for -d, --data.

              --data-ascii can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --data-ascii @file https://example.com

              See also --data-binary, --data-raw and --data-urlencode.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) Post data exactly as specified with no extra processing
              whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename. Data is posted in a similar manner as -d, --data does,
              except that newlines and carriage returns are preserved and
              conversions are never done.

              Like -d, --data the default content-type sent to the server is
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded. If you want the data to be
              treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the
              content-type to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type:
              application/octet-stream".

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the
              first append data as described in -d, --data.

              --data-binary can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --data-binary @filename https://example.com

              See also --data-ascii.

       --data-raw <data>
              (HTTP) Post data similarly to -d, --data but without the special
              interpretation of the @ character.

              --data-raw can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --data-raw "hello" https://example.com
               curl --data-raw "@at@at@" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) Post data, similar to the other -d, --data options with
              the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name
              followed by a separator and a content specification. The <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     URL-encode the content and pass that on. Just be careful
                     so that the content does not contain any "=" or "@"
                     symbols, as that makes the syntax match one of the other
                     cases below!

              =content
                     URL-encode the content and pass that on. The preceding
                     "=" symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     URL-encode the content part and pass that on. Note that
                     the name part is expected to be URL-encoded already.

              @filename
                     load data from the given file (including any newlines),
                     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     load data from the given file (including any newlines),
                     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST. The name
                     part gets an equal sign appended, resulting in
                     name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name is
                     expected to be URL-encoded already.


              --data-urlencode can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --data-urlencode name=val https://example.com
               curl --data-urlencode =encodethis https://example.com
               curl --data-urlencode name@file https://example.com
               curl --data-urlencode @fileonly https://example.com

              See also -d, --data and --data-raw.

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP MQTT) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the
              HTTP server, in the same way that a browser does when a user has
              filled in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This
              option makes curl pass the data to the server using the
              content-type application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Compare to -F,
              --form.

              --data-raw is almost the same but does not have a special
              interpretation of the @ character. To post data purely binary,
              you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-encode
              the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same
              command line, the data pieces specified are merged with a
              separating &-symbol. Thus, using '-d name=daniel -d skill=lousy'
              would generate a post chunk that looks like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
              the data from stdin. Posting data from a file named 'foobar'
              would thus be done with -d, --data @foobar. When -d, --data is
              told to read from a file like that, carriage returns, newlines
              and null bytes are stripped out. If you do not want the @
              character to have a special interpretation use --data-raw
              instead.

              The data for this option is passed on to the server exactly as
              provided on the command line. curl does not convert, change or
              improve it. It is up to the user to provide the data in the
              correct form.

              --data can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -d "name=curl" https://example.com
               curl -d "name=curl" -d "tool=cmdline" https://example.com
               curl -d @filename https://example.com

              See also --data-binary, --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
              option is mutually exclusive to -F, --form and -I, --head and
              -T, --upload-file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
              (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL what curl is allowed to delegate when
              it comes to user credentials.

              none   Do not allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set
                     in the Kerberos service ticket, which is a matter of
                     realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.


              If --delegation is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --delegation "none" https://example.com

              See also -k, --insecure and --ssl.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This authentication
              scheme avoids sending the password over the wire in clear text.
              Use this in combination with the normal -u, --user option to set
              username and password.

              Providing --digest multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-digest.

              Example:
               curl -u name:password --digest https://example.com

              See also -u, --user, --proxy-digest and --anyauth. This option
              is mutually exclusive to --basic and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands when doing
              active FTP transfers.  Curl normally first attempts to use EPRT
              before using PORT, but with this option, it uses PORT right
              away. EPRT is an extension to the original FTP protocol, and
              does not work on all servers, but enables more functionality in
              a better way than the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              If the server is accessed using IPv6, this option has no effect
              as EPRT is necessary then.

              Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to
              switch to passive mode you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
              force it with --ftp-pasv.

              Providing --disable-eprt multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-disable-eprt.

              Example:
               curl --disable-eprt ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-epsv and -P, --ftp-port.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Disable the use of the EPSV command when doing passive FTP
              transfers. Curl normally first attempts to use EPSV before PASV,
              but with this option, it does not try EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              If the server is an IPv6 host, this option has no effect as EPSV
              is necessary then.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

              Providing --disable-epsv multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-disable-epsv.

              Example:
               curl --disable-epsv ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-eprt and -P, --ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
              If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc
              config file is not read or used. See the -K, --config for
              details on the default config file search path.

              Prior to 7.50.0 curl supported the short option name q but not
              the long option name disable.

              Providing --disable multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-disable.

              Example:
               curl -q https://example.com

              See also -K, --config.

       --disallow-username-in-url
              Exit with error if passed a URL containing a username. Probably
              most useful when the URL is being provided at runtime or
              similar.

              Providing --disallow-username-in-url multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-disallow-username-in-url.

              Example:
               curl --disallow-username-in-url https://example.com

              See also --proto. Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
              (DNS) Send outgoing DNS requests through the given interface.
              This option is a counterpart to --interface (which does not
              affect DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name (not
              an address).

              If --dns-interface is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-interface eth0 https://example.com

              See also --dns-ipv4-addr and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-
              ares.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
              (DNS) Bind to a specific IP address when making IPv4 DNS
              requests, so that the DNS requests originate from this address.
              The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

              If --dns-ipv4-addr is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-ipv4-addr 10.1.2.3 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-
              ares.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
              (DNS) Bind to a specific IP address when making IPv6 DNS
              requests, so that the DNS requests originate from this address.
              The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

              If --dns-ipv6-addr is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --dns-ipv6-addr 2a04:4e42::561 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-
              ares.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
              (DNS) Set the list of DNS servers to be used instead of the
              system default. The list of IP addresses should be separated
              with commas. Port numbers may also optionally be given, appended
              to the IP address separated with a colon.

              If --dns-servers is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Examples:
               curl --dns-servers 192.168.0.1,192.168.0.2 https://example.com
               curl --dns-servers 10.0.0.1:53 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-servers
              requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-
              ares.

       --doh-cert-status
              Same as --cert-status but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

              Verifies the status of the DoH servers' certificate by using the
              Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS extension.

              If this option is enabled and the DoH server sends an invalid
              (e.g. expired) response, if the response suggests that the
              server certificate has been revoked, or no response at all is
              received, the verification fails.

              This support is currently only implemented in the OpenSSL and
              GnuTLS backends.

              Providing --doh-cert-status multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-doh-cert-status.

              Example:
               curl --doh-cert-status --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              See also --doh-insecure. Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-insecure
              Same as -k, --insecure but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

              Providing --doh-insecure multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-doh-insecure.

              Example:
               curl --doh-insecure --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              See also --doh-url. Added in 7.76.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
              Specifies which DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) server to use to resolve
              hostnames, instead of using the default name resolver mechanism.
              The URL must be HTTPS.

              Some SSL options that you set for your transfer also applies to
              DoH since the name lookups take place over SSL. However, the
              certificate verification settings are not inherited but are
              controlled separately via --doh-insecure and --doh-cert-status.

              This option is unset if an empty string "" is used as the URL.
              (Added in 7.85.0)

              If --doh-url is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

              See also --doh-insecure. Added in 7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
              (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to the specified
              file. If no headers are received, the use of this option creates
              an empty file.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              Having multiple transfers in one set of operations (i.e. the
              URLs in one -:, --next clause), appends them to the same file,
              separated by a blank line.

              If --dump-header is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --dump-header store.txt https://example.com

              See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
              (TLS) Deprecated option (added in 7.84.0). Prior to that it only
              had an effect on curl if built to use old versions of OpenSSL.

              Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket.
              The socket is used to seed the random engine for SSL
              connections.

              If --egd-file is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --egd-file /random/here https://example.com

              See also --random-file.

       --engine <name>
              (TLS) Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher
              operations. Use --engine list to print a list of build-time
              supported engines. Note that not all (and possibly none) of the
              engines may be available at runtime.

              If --engine is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --engine flavor https://example.com

              See also --ciphers and --curves.

       --etag-compare <file>
              (HTTP) Make a conditional HTTP request for the specific ETag
              read from the given file by sending a custom If-None-Match
              header using the stored ETag.

              For correct results, make sure that the specified file contains
              only a single line with the desired ETag. An empty file is
              parsed as an empty ETag.

              Use the option --etag-save to first save the ETag from a
              response, and then use this option to compare against the saved
              ETag in a subsequent request.

              If --etag-compare is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --etag-compare etag.txt https://example.com

              See also --etag-save and -z, --time-cond. Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
              (HTTP) Save an HTTP ETag to the specified file. An ETag is a
              caching related header, usually returned in a response.

              If no ETag is sent by the server, an empty file is created.

              If --etag-save is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --etag-save storetag.txt https://example.com

              See also --etag-compare. Added in 7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
              (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
              100-continue response when curl emits an Expects: 100-continue
              header in its request. By default curl waits one second. This
              option accepts decimal values. When curl stops waiting, it
              continues as if a response was received.

              The decimal value needs to provided using a dot (".") as decimal
              separator - not the local version even if it might be using
              another separator.

              If --expect100-timeout is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --expect100-timeout 2.5 -T file https://example.com

              See also --connect-timeout.

       --fail-early
              Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

              When curl is used to do multiple transfers on the command line,
              it attempts to operate on each given URL, one by one. By
              default, it ignores errors if there are more URLs given and the
              last URL's success determines the error code curl returns. Early
              failures are "hidden" by subsequent successful transfers.

              Using this option, curl instead returns an error on the first
              transfer that fails, independent of the amount of URLs that are
              given on the command line. This way, no transfer failures go
              undetected by scripts and similar.

              This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
              fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can combine the
              two options, however note -f, --fail is not global and is
              therefore contained by -:, --next.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --fail-early multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-fail-early.

              Example:
               curl --fail-early https://example.com https://two.example

              See also -f, --fail and --fail-with-body. Added in 7.52.0.

       --fail-with-body
              (HTTP) Return an error on server errors where the HTTP response
              code is 400 or greater). In normal cases when an HTTP server
              fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
              so (which often also describes why and more).  This option
              allows curl to output and save that content but also to return
              error 22.

              This is an alternative option to -f, --fail which makes curl
              fail for the same circumstances but without saving the content.

              Providing --fail-with-body multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-fail-with-body.

              Example:
               curl --fail-with-body https://example.com

              See also -f, --fail and --fail-early. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -f, --fail. Added in 7.76.0.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail fast with no output at all on server errors. This is
              useful to enable scripts and users to better deal with failed
              attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP server fails to deliver a
              document, it returns an HTML document stating so (which often
              also describes why and more). This command line option prevents
              curl from outputting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where
              non-successful response codes slip through, especially when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

              Providing --fail multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-fail.

              Example:
               curl --fail https://example.com

              See also --fail-with-body and --fail-early. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --fail-with-body.

       --false-start
              (TLS) Use false start during the TLS handshake. False start is a
              mode where a TLS client starts sending application data before
              verifying the server's Finished message, thus saving a round
              trip when performing a full handshake.

              This functionality is currently only implemented in the Secure
              Transport (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later) backend.

              Providing --false-start multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-false-start.

              Example:
               curl --false-start https://example.com

              See also --tcp-fastopen.

       --form-escape
              (HTTP) Pass on names of multipart form fields and files using
              backslash-escaping instead of percent-encoding.

              If --form-escape is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --form-escape -F 'field\name=curl' -F 'file=@load"this' https://example.com

              See also -F, --form. Added in 7.81.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP SMTP IMAP) Similar to -F, --form except that the value
              string for the named parameter is used literally. Leading @ and
              < characters, and the ";type=" string in the value have no
              special meaning. Use this in preference to -F, --form if there
              is any possibility that the string value may accidentally
              trigger the @ or < features of -F, --form.

              --form-string can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --form-string "name=data" https://example.com

              See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP SMTP IMAP) For the HTTP protocol family, emulate a
              filled-in form in which a user has pressed the submit button.
              This makes curl POST data using the Content-Type
              multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

              For SMTP and IMAP protocols, this composes a multipart mail
              message to transmit.

              This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the
              'content' part to be a file, prefix the filename with an @ sign.
              To just get the content part from a file, prefix the filename
              with the symbol <. The difference between @ and < is then that @
              makes a file get attached in the post as a file upload, while
              the < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text
              field from a file.

              Read content from stdin instead of a file by using a single "-"
              as filename.  This goes for both @ and < constructs. When stdin
              is used, the contents is buffered in memory first by curl to
              determine its size and allow a possible resend. Defining a
              part's data from a named non-regular file (such as a named pipe
              or similar) is not subject to buffering and is instead read at
              transmission time; since the full size is unknown before the
              transfer starts, such data is sent as chunks by HTTP and
              rejected by IMAP.

              Example: send an image to an HTTP server, where 'profile' is the
              name of the form-field to which the file portrait.jpg is the
              input:

              curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

              Example: send your name and shoe size in two text fields to the
              server:

              curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11 https://example.com/

              Example: send your essay in a text field to the server. Send it
              as a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a local
              file:

              curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

              You can also instruct curl what Content-Type to use by using
              "type=", in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" example.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a file upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

              If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by
              double-quotes like:

              curl -F "file=@\"local,file\";filename=\"name;in;post\"" example.com

              or

              curl -F 'file=@"local,file";filename="name;in;post"' example.com

              Note that if a filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
              double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
              backslash.

              Quoting must also be applied to non-file data if it contains
              semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

              curl -F 'colors="red; green; blue";type=text/x-myapp' example.com

              You can add custom headers to the field by setting headers=,
              like

              curl -F "submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

              or

              curl -F "submit=OK;headers=@headerfile" example.com

              The headers= keyword may appear more that once and above notes
              about quoting apply. When headers are read from a file, Empty
              lines and lines starting with '#' are comments and ignored; each
              header can be folded by splitting between two words and starting
              the continuation line with a space; embedded carriage-returns
              and trailing spaces are stripped.  Here is an example of a
              header file contents:

              # This file contain two headers.
              X-header-1: this is a header

              # The following header is folded.
              X-header-2: this is
               another header

              To support sending multipart mail messages, the syntax is
              extended as follows:

              - name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character of
              the argument,

              - if data starts with '(', this signals to start a new
              multipart: it can be followed by a content type specification.

              - a multipart can be terminated with a '=)' argument.

              Example: the following command sends an SMTP mime email
              consisting in an inline part in two alternative formats: plain
              text and HTML. It attaches a text file:

              curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
                   -F '=plain text message' \
                   -F '= <body>HTML message</body>;type=text/html' \
                   -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt' ...  smtp://example.com

              Data can be encoded for transfer using encoder=. Available
              encodings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding
              the corresponding Content-Transfer-Encoding header, 7bit that
              only rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error,
              quoted-printable and base64 that encodes data according to the
              corresponding schemes, limiting lines length to 76 characters.

              Example: send multipart mail with a quoted-printable text
              message and a base64 attached file:

              curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable' \
                   -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ... smtp://example.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              --form can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --form "name=curl" --form "file=@loadthis" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data, --form-string and --form-escape. This
              option is mutually exclusive to -d, --data and -I, --head and
              -T, --upload-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after username
              and password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
              ACCT command.

              If --ftp-account is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-account "mr.robot" ftp://example.com/

              See also -u, --user.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this command.  When connecting to Tumbleweed's Secure
              Transport server over FTPS using a client certificate, using
              "SITE AUTH" tells the server to retrieve the username from the
              certificate.

              If --ftp-alternative-to-user is provided several times, the last
              set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-alternative-to-user "U53r" ftp://example.com

              See also --ftp-account and -u, --user.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that
              does not currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl instead attempts to
              create missing directories.

              Providing --ftp-create-dirs multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-create-dirs.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-create-dirs -T file ftp://example.com/remote/path/file

              See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
              FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the
              following alternatives:

              multicwd
                     Do a single CWD operation for each path part in the given
                     URL. For deep hierarchies this means many commands. This
                     is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This is the
                     default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  Do no CWD at all. curl does SIZE, RETR, STOR etc and
                     gives the full path to the server for each of these
                     commands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     Do one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operate on the file "normally" (like in the multicwd
                     case). This is somewhat more standards compliant than
                     "nocwd" but without the full penalty of "multicwd".


              If --ftp-method is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --ftp-method multicwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
               curl --ftp-method nocwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
               curl --ftp-method singlecwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file

              See also -l, --list-only.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the
              internal default behavior, but using this option can be used to
              override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

              Reversing an enforced passive really is not doable but you must
              then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive mode means that curl tries the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

              Providing --ftp-pasv multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-pasv.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-pasv ftp://example.com/

              See also --disable-epsv.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when
              connecting with FTP. This option makes curl use active mode.
              curl then commands the server to connect back to the client's
              specified address and port, while passive mode asks the server
              to setup an IP address and port for it to connect to. <address>
              should be one of:

              interface
                     e.g. eth0 to specify which interface's IP address you
                     want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     e.g. 192.168.10.1 to specify the exact IP address

              hostname
                     e.g. my.host.domain to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used
                     for the control connection. This is the recommended
                     choice.

              Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to
              use the EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt.
              EPRT is really PORT++.

              You can also append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the
              address, to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you
              specify a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A single
              number works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of
              failure since the port may not be available.


              If --ftp-port is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl -P - ftp:/example.com
               curl -P eth0 ftp:/example.com
               curl -P 192.168.0.2 ftp:/example.com

              See also --ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV). Certain FTP
              servers, mainly drftpd, require this non-standard command for
              directory listings as well as up and downloads in PASV mode.

              Providing --ftp-pret multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-pret.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-pret ftp://example.com/

              See also -P, --ftp-port and --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Do not use the IP address the server suggests in its
              response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
              connection. Instead curl reuses the same IP address it already
              uses for the control connection.

              This option is enabled by default (added in 7.74.0).

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
              of PASV.

              Providing --ftp-skip-pasv-ip multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-skip-pasv-ip.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-skip-pasv-ip ftp://example.com/

              See also --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
              (FTP) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode does not initiate the
              shutdown, but instead waits for the server to do it, and does
              not reply to the shutdown from the server. The active mode
              initiates the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

              Providing --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-ssl-ccc-mode.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode active --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

              See also --ftp-ssl-ccc.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
              layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel
              communication is be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to
              follow the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive.

              Providing --ftp-ssl-ccc multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-ssl-ccc.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

              See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode.

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.
              Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers
              for efficiency. Fails the transfer if the server does not
              support SSL/TLS.

              Providing --ftp-ssl-control multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ftp-ssl-control.

              Example:
               curl --ftp-ssl-control ftp://example.com

              See also --ssl.

       -G, --get
              (HTTP) When used, this option makes all data specified with -d,
              --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
              GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
              used. The data is appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with -I, --head, the POST data is instead
              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              Providing --get multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-get.

              Examples:
               curl --get https://example.com
               curl --get -d "tool=curl" -d "age=old" https://example.com
               curl --get -I -d "tool=curl" https://example.com

              See also -d, --data and -X, --request.

       -g, --globoff
              Switch off the URL globbing function. When you set this option,
              you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[] without
              having curl itself interpret them. Note that these letters are
              not normal legal URL contents but they should be encoded
              according to the URI standard.

              Providing --globoff multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-globoff.

              Example:
               curl -g "https://example.com/{[]}}}}"

              See also -K, --config and -q, --disable.

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <ms>
              Happy Eyeballs is an algorithm that attempts to connect to both
              IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for dual-stack hosts, giving IPv6 a
              head-start of the specified number of milliseconds. If the IPv6
              address cannot be connected to within that time, then a
              connection attempt is made to the IPv4 address in parallel. The
              first connection to be established is the one that is used.

              The range of suggested useful values is limited. Happy Eyeballs
              RFC 6555 says "It is RECOMMENDED that connection attempts be
              paced 150-250 ms apart to balance human factors against network
              load." libcurl currently defaults to 200 ms. Firefox and Chrome
              currently default to 300 ms.

              If --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms is provided several times, the
              last set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms 500 https://example.com

              See also -m, --max-time and --connect-timeout. Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-clientip <ip>
              (HTTP) Sets a client IP in HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at
              the beginning of the connection.

              For valid requests, IPv4 addresses must be indicated as a series
              of exactly 4 integers in the range [0..255] inclusive written in
              decimal representation separated by exactly one dot between each
              other. Heading zeroes are not permitted in front of numbers in
              order to avoid any possible confusion with octal numbers. IPv6
              addresses must be indicated as series of 4 hexadecimal digits
              (upper or lower case) delimited by colons between each other,
              with the acceptance of one double colon sequence to replace the
              largest acceptable range of consecutive zeroes. The total number
              of decoded bits must exactly be 128.

              Otherwise, any string can be accepted for the client IP and get
              sent.

              It replaces --haproxy-protocol if used, it is not necessary to
              specify both flags.

              If --haproxy-clientip is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --haproxy-clientip $IP

              See also -x, --proxy. Added in 8.2.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
              (HTTP) Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at the beginning
              of the connection.  This is used by some load balancers and
              reverse proxies to indicate the client's true IP address and
              port.

              This option is primarily useful when sending test requests to a
              service that expects this header.

              Providing --haproxy-protocol multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-haproxy-protocol.

              Example:
               curl --haproxy-protocol https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
              (HTTP FTP FILE) Fetch the headers only! HTTP-servers feature the
              command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a
              document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
              file size and last modification time only.

              Providing --head multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-head.

              Example:
               curl -I https://example.com

              See also -G, --get, -v, --verbose and --trace-ascii.

       -H, --header <header/@file>
              (HTTP IMAP SMTP) Extra header to include in information sent.
              When used within an HTTP request, it is added to the regular
              request headers.

              For an IMAP or SMTP MIME uploaded mail built with -F, --form
              options, it is prepended to the resulting MIME document,
              effectively including it at the mail global level. It does not
              affect raw uploaded mails (Added in 7.56.0).

              You may specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you
              should add a custom header that has the same name as one of the
              internal ones curl would use, your externally set header is used
              instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even
              trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not
              replace internally set headers without knowing perfectly well
              what you are doing. Remove an internal header by giving a
              replacement without content on the right side of the colon, as
              in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-value then
              its header must be terminated with a semicolon, such as -H
              "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl makes sure that each header you add/replace is sent with
              the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a
              part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they only mess things up for you. curl passes on the
              verbatim string you give it without any filter or other safe
              guards. That includes white space and control characters.

              This option can take an argument in @filename style, which then
              adds a header for each line in the input file. Using @- makes
              curl read the header file from stdin. Added in 7.55.0.

              Please note that most anti-spam utilities check the presence and
              value of several MIME mail headers: these are "From:", "To:",
              "Date:" and "Subject:" among others and should be added with
              this option.

              You need --proxy-header to send custom headers intended for an
              HTTP proxy. Added in 7.37.0.

              Passing on a "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" header when doing an
              HTTP request with a request body, makes curl send the data using
              chunked encoding.

              WARNING: headers set with this option are set in all HTTP
              requests - even after redirects are followed, like when told
              with -L, --location. This can lead to the header being sent to
              other hosts than the original host, so sensitive headers should
              be used with caution combined with following redirects.

              --header can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" https://example.com
               curl -H "User-Agent: yes-please/2000" https://example.com
               curl -H "Host:" https://example.com
               curl -H @headers.txt https://example.com

              See also -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer.

       -h, --help <category>
              Usage help. List all curl command line options within the given
              category.

              If no argument is provided, curl displays the most important
              command line arguments.

              For category all, curl displays help for all options.

              If category is specified, curl displays all available help
              categories.

              Example:
               curl --help all

              See also -v, --verbose.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              (SFTP SCP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
              string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's
              public key, curl refuses the connection with the host unless the
              checksums match.

              If --hostpubmd5 is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --hostpubmd5 e5c1c49020640a5ab0f2034854c321a8 sftp://example.com/

              See also --hostpubsha256.

       --hostpubsha256 <sha256>
              (SFTP SCP) Pass a string containing a Base64-encoded SHA256 hash
              of the remote host's public key. Curl refuses the connection
              with the host unless the hashes match.

              This feature requires libcurl to be built with libssh2 and does
              not work with other SSH backends.

              If --hostpubsha256 is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --hostpubsha256 NDVkMTQxMGQ1ODdmMjQ3MjczYjAyOTY5MmRkMjVmNDQ= sftp://example.com/

              See also --hostpubmd5. Added in 7.80.0.

       --hsts <filename>
              (HTTPS) Enable HSTS for the transfer. If the filename points to
              an existing HSTS cache file, that is used. After a completed
              transfer, the cache is saved to the filename again if it has
              been modified.

              If curl is told to use HTTP:// for a transfer involving a
              hostname that exists in the HSTS cache, it upgrades the transfer
              to use HTTPS. Each HSTS cache entry has an individual life time
              after which the upgrade is no longer performed.

              Specify a "" filename (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
              make curl just handle HSTS in memory.

              If this option is used several times, curl loads contents from
              all the files but the last one is used for saving.

              --hsts can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --hsts cache.txt https://example.com

              See also --proto. Added in 7.74.0.

       --http0.9
              (HTTP) Accept an HTTP version 0.9 response.

              HTTP/0.9 is a response without headers and therefore you can
              also connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still get a
              response since curl simply transparently downgrades - if
              allowed.

              HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default (added in 7.66.0)

              Providing --http0.9 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-http0.9.

              Example:
               curl --http0.9 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1, --http2 and --http3. Added in 7.64.0.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its internally
              preferred HTTP version.

              Providing --http1.0 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http1.0 https://example.com

              See also --http0.9 and --http1.1. This option is mutually
              exclusive to --http1.1 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowledge
              and --http3.

       --http1.1
              (HTTP) Use HTTP version 1.1. This is the default with HTTP://
              URLs.

              Providing --http1.1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http1.1 https://example.com

              See also --http1.0 and --http0.9. This option is mutually
              exclusive to --http1.0 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowledge
              and --http3.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
              (HTTP) Issue a non-TLS HTTP requests using HTTP/2 directly
              without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade.  It requires prior knowledge that the
              server supports HTTP/2 straight away.  HTTPS requests still do
              HTTP/2 the standard way with negotiated protocol version in the
              TLS handshake.

              Providing --http2-prior-knowledge multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-http2-prior-knowledge.

              Example:
               curl --http2-prior-knowledge https://example.com

              See also --http2 and --http3. --http2-prior-knowledge requires
              that the underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. This
              option is mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and --http1.0 and
              --http2 and --http3.

       --http2
              (HTTP) Use HTTP/2.

              For HTTPS, this means curl negotiates HTTP/2 in the TLS
              handshake. curl does this by default.

              For HTTP, this means curl attempts to upgrade the request to
              HTTP/2 using the Upgrade: request header.

              When curl uses HTTP/2 over HTTPS, it does not itself insist on
              TLS 1.2 or higher even though that is required by the
              specification. A user can add this version requirement with
              --tlsv1.2.

              Providing --http2 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http2 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1, --http3 and --no-alpn. --http2 requires that
              the underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. This option
              is mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and --http1.0 and
              --http2-prior-knowledge and --http3.

       --http3-only
              (HTTP) Instructs curl to use HTTP/3 to the host in the URL, with
              no fallback to earlier HTTP versions. HTTP/3 can only be used
              for HTTPS and not for HTTP URLs. For HTTP, this option triggers
              an error.

              This option allows a user to avoid using the Alt-Svc method of
              upgrading to HTTP/3 when you know that the target speaks HTTP/3
              on the given host and port.

              This option makes curl fail if a QUIC connection cannot be
              established, it does not attempt any other HTTP versions on its
              own. Use --http3 for similar functionality with a fallback.

              Providing --http3-only multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http3-only https://example.com

              See also --http1.1, --http2 and --http3. --http3-only requires
              that the underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/3. This
              option is mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and --http1.0 and
              --http2 and --http2-prior-knowledge and --http3. Added in
              7.88.0.

       --http3
              (HTTP) Attempt HTTP/3 to the host in the URL, but fallback to
              earlier HTTP versions if the HTTP/3 connection establishment
              fails. HTTP/3 is only available for HTTPS and not for HTTP URLs.

              This option allows a user to avoid using the Alt-Svc method of
              upgrading to HTTP/3 when you know that the target speaks HTTP/3
              on the given host and port.

              When asked to use HTTP/3, curl issues a separate attempt to use
              older HTTP versions with a slight delay, so if the HTTP/3
              transfer fails or is slow, curl still tries to proceed with an
              older HTTP version.

              Use --http3-only for similar functionality without a fallback.

              Providing --http3 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --http3 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support HTTP/3. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and --http1.0 and --http2 and
              --http2-prior-knowledge and --http3-only. Added in 7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
              (FTP HTTP) For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. This is
              particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which
              reports incorrect Content-Length for files larger than 2
              gigabytes.

              For FTP, this makes curl skip the SIZE command to figure out the
              size before downloading a file.

              This option does not work for HTTP if libcurl was built to use
              hyper.

              Providing --ignore-content-length multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-ignore-content-length.

              Example:
               curl --ignore-content-length https://example.com

              See also --ftp-skip-pasv-ip.

       -i, --include
              (HTTP FTP) Include response headers in the output. HTTP response
              headers can include things like server name, cookies, date of
              the document, HTTP version and more... With non-HTTP protocols,
              the "headers" are other server communication.

              To view the request headers, consider the -v, --verbose option.

              Prior to 7.75.0 curl did not print the headers if -f, --fail was
              used in combination with this option and there was error
              reported by server.

              Providing --include multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-include.

              Example:
               curl -i https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
              (TLS SFTP SCP) By default, every secure connection curl makes is
              verified to be secure before the transfer takes place. This
              option makes curl skip the verification step and proceed without
              checking.

              When this option is not used for protocols using TLS, curl
              verifies the server's TLS certificate before it continues: that
              the certificate contains the right name which matches the
              hostname used in the URL and that the certificate has been
              signed by a CA certificate present in the cert store. See this
              online resource for further details:
              https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

              For SFTP and SCP, this option makes curl skip the known_hosts
              verification.  known_hosts is a file normally stored in the
              user's home directory in the ".ssh" subdirectory, which contains
              hostnames and their public keys.

              WARNING: using this option makes the transfer insecure.

              When curl uses secure protocols it trusts responses and allows
              for example HSTS and Alt-Svc information to be stored and used
              subsequently. Using -k, --insecure can make curl trust and use
              such information from malicious servers.

              Providing --insecure multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-insecure.

              Example:
               curl --insecure https://example.com

              See also --proxy-insecure, --cacert and --capath.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
              interface name, IP address or hostname. An example could look
              like:

              curl --interface eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

              On Linux it can be used to specify a VRF, but the binary needs
              to either have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root. More
              information about Linux VRF:
              https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/vrf.txt

              If --interface is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --interface eth0 https://example.com

              See also --dns-interface.

       --ipfs-gateway <URL>
              (IPFS) Specify which gateway to use for IPFS and IPNS URLs. Not
              specifying this instead makes curl check if the IPFS_GATEWAY
              environment variable is set, or if a "~/.ipfs/gateway" file
              holding the gateway URL exists.

              If you run a local IPFS node, this gateway is by default
              available under "http://localhost:8080". A full example URL
              would look like:

              curl --ipfs-gateway http://localhost:8080 ipfs://bafybeigagd5nmnn2iys2f3doro7ydrevyr2mzarwidgadawmamiteydbzi

              There are many public IPFS gateways. See for example:
              https://ipfs.github.io/public-gateway-checker/

              If you opt to go for a remote gateway you need to be aware that
              you completely trust the gateway. This might be fine in local
              gateways that you host yourself. With remote gateways there
              could potentially be malicious actors returning you data that
              does not match the request you made, inspect or even interfere
              with the request. You may not notice this when using curl. A
              mitigation could be to go for a "trustless" gateway. This means
              you locally verify that the data. Consult the docs page on
              trusted vs trustless:
              https://docs.ipfs.tech/reference/http/gateway/#trusted-vs-trustless

              If --ipfs-gateway is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --ipfs-gateway https://example.com ipfs://

              See also -h, --help and -M, --manual. Added in 8.4.0.

       -4, --ipv4
              Use IPv4 addresses only when resolving hostnames, and not for
              example try IPv6.

              Providing --ipv4 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --ipv4 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -6, --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
              Use IPv6 addresses only when resolving hostnames, and not for
              example try IPv4.

              Your resolver may respond to an IPv6-only resolve request by
              returning IPv6 addresses that contain "mapped" IPv4 addresses
              for compatibility purposes.  macOS is known to do this.

              Providing --ipv6 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --ipv6 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -4, --ipv4.

       --json <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified JSON data in a POST request to the
              HTTP server. --json works as a shortcut for passing on these
              three options:

              --data [arg]
              --header "Content-Type: application/json"
              --header "Accept: application/json"

              There is no verification that the passed in data is actual JSON
              or that the syntax is correct.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename to read the data from, or a single dash (-) if you want
              curl to read the data from stdin. Posting data from a file named
              'foobar' would thus be done with --json @foobar and to instead
              read the data from stdin, use --json @-.

              If this option is used more than once on the same command line,
              the additional data pieces are concatenated to the previous
              before sending.

              The headers this option sets can be overridden with -H, --header
              as usual.

              --json can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --json '{ "drink": "coffe" }' https://example.com
               curl --json '{ "drink":' --json ' "coffe" }' https://example.com
               curl --json @prepared https://example.com
               curl --json @- https://example.com < json.txt

              See also --data-binary and --data-raw. This option is mutually
              exclusive to -F, --form and -I, --head and -T, --upload-file.
              Added in 7.82.0.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option makes it discard all "session cookies". This has the same
              effect as if a new session is started. Typical browsers discard
              session cookies when they are closed down.

              Providing --junk-session-cookies multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-junk-session-cookies.

              Example:
               curl --junk-session-cookies -b cookies.txt https://example.com

              See also -b, --cookie and -c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              Set the time a connection needs to remain idle before sending
              keepalive probes and the time between individual keepalive
              probes. It is currently effective on operating systems offering
              the "TCP_KEEPIDLE" and "TCP_KEEPINTVL" socket options (meaning
              Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). Keepalive is used by the TCP
              stack to detect broken networks on idle connections. The number
              of missed keepalive probes before declaring the connection down
              is OS dependent and is commonly 9 or 10. This option has no
              effect if --no-keepalive is used.

              If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

              If --keepalive-time is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --keepalive-time 20 https://example.com

              See also --no-keepalive and -m, --max-time.

       --key-type <type>
              (TLS) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key
              provided private key is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If --key-type is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --key-type DER --key here https://example.com

              See also --key.

       --key <key>
              (TLS SSH) Private key filename. Allows you to provide your
              private key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified,
              curl tries the following candidates in order: "~/.ssh/id_rsa",
              "~/.ssh/id_dsa", "./id_rsa", "./id_dsa".

              If curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine pkcs11
              is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to
              specify a private key located in a PKCS#11 device. A string
              beginning with "pkcs11:" is interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
              PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option is set as
              "pkcs11" if none was provided and the --key-type option is set
              as "ENG" if none was provided.

              If curl is built against Secure Transport or Schannel then this
              option is ignored for TLS protocols (HTTPS, etc). Those backends
              expect the private key to be already present in the keychain or
              PKCS#12 file containing the certificate.

              If --key is provided several times, the last set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --cert certificate --key here https://example.com

              See also --key-type and -E, --cert.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be
              entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
              'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these,
              'private' is used.

              If --krb is provided several times, the last set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --krb clear ftp://example.com/

              See also --delegation and --ssl. --krb requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you
              get libcurl-using C source code written to the file that does
              the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              If --libcurl is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --libcurl client.c https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose.

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use - for
              both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a
              limited pipe and you would like your transfer not to use your
              entire bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
              appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' counts the number as kilobytes,
              'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it
              gigabytes. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024 based. For
              example 1k is 1024. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The rate limiting logic works on averaging the transfer speed to
              no more than the set threshold over a period of multiple
              seconds.

              If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option takes
              precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help
              keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If --limit-rate is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --limit-rate 100K https://example.com
               curl --limit-rate 1000 https://example.com
               curl --limit-rate 10M https://example.com

              See also --rate, -Y, --speed-limit and -y, --speed-time.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP POP3 SFTP) When listing an FTP directory, force a name-only
              view. Maybe particularly useful if the user wants to
              machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory since the normal
              directory view does not use a standard look or format. When used
              like this, the option causes an NLST command to be sent to the
              server instead of LIST.

              Note: Some FTP servers list only files in their response to
              NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

              When listing an SFTP directory, this switch forces a name-only
              view, one per line. This is especially useful if the user wants
              to machine-parse the contents of an SFTP directory since the
              normal directory view provides more information than just
              filenames.

              When retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch forces a
              LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
              particularly useful if the user wants to see if a specific
              message-id exists on the server and what size it is.

              Note: When combined with -X, --request, this option can be used
              to send a UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
              unique identifier rather than its message-id to make the
              request.

              Providing --list-only multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-list-only.

              Example:
               curl --list-only ftp://example.com/dir/

              See also -Q, --quote and -X, --request.

       --local-port <range>
              Set a preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of local port
              numbers to use for the connection(s). Note that port numbers by
              nature are a scarce resource so setting this range to something
              too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup failures.

              If --local-port is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --local-port 1000-3000 https://example.com

              See also -g, --globoff.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP) Like -L, --location, but allows sending the name +
              password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or
              may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to
              a site to which you send your authentication info (which is
              clear-text in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              Providing --location-trusted multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-location-trusted.

              Example:
               curl --location-trusted -u user:password https://example.com

              See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
              (HTTP) If the server reports that the requested page has moved
              to a different location (indicated with a Location: header and a
              3XX response code), this option makes curl redo the request on
              the new place. If used together with -i, --include or -I,
              --head, headers from all requested pages are shown.

              When authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials to
              the initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different host,
              it does not get the user+password pass on. See also
              --location-trusted on how to change this.

              Limit the amount of redirects to follow by using the
              --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and if the request is a POST, it
              sends the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was
              301, 302, or 303. If the response code was any other 3x code,
              curl resends the following request using the same unmodified
              method.

              You can tell curl to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
              response by using the dedicated options for that: --post301,
              --post302 and --post303.

              The method set with -X, --request overrides the method curl
              would otherwise select to use.

              Providing --location multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-location.

              Example:
               curl -L https://example.com

              See also --resolve and --alt-svc.

       --login-options <options>
              (IMAP LDAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use during
              server authentication.

              You can use login options to specify protocol specific options
              that may be used during authentication. At present only IMAP,
              POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information about
              login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and the IETF draft
              https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-earhart-url-smtp-00

              Since 8.2.0, IMAP supports the login option "AUTH=+LOGIN". With
              this option, curl uses the plain (not SASL) "LOGIN IMAP" command
              even if the server advertises SASL authentication. Care should
              be taken in using this option, as it sends your password over
              the network in plain text. This does not work if the IMAP server
              disables the plain "LOGIN" (e.g. to prevent password snooping).

              If --login-options is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --login-options 'AUTH=*' imap://example.com

              See also -u, --user.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address. This is used to specify the
              authentication address (identity) of a submitted message that is
              being relayed to another server.

              If --mail-auth is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --mail-auth user@example.come -T mail smtp://example.com/

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from.

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get
              sent from.

              If --mail-from is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --mail-from user@example.com -T mail smtp://example.com/

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
              (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
              aborts SMTP conversation if at least one of the recipients
              causes RCPT TO command to return an error.

              The default behavior can be changed by passing
              --mail-rcpt-allowfails command-line option which makes curl
              ignore errors and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

              If all recipients trigger RCPT TO failures and this flag is
              specified, curl still aborts the SMTP conversation and returns
              the error received from to the last RCPT TO command.

              Providing --mail-rcpt-allowfails multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-mail-rcpt-allowfails.

              Example:
               curl --mail-rcpt-allowfails --mail-rcpt dest@example.com smtp://example.com

              See also --mail-rcpt. Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single email address, username or mailing list
              name. Repeat this option several times to send to multiple
              recipients.

              When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the
              recipient should be specified as the username or username and
              domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC 5321).

              When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the
              recipient should be specified using the mailing list name, such
              as "Friends" or "London-Office".


              --mail-rcpt can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --mail-rcpt user@example.net smtp://example.com

              See also --mail-rcpt-allowfails.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

              Example:
               curl --manual

              See also -v, --verbose, --libcurl and --trace.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              (FTP HTTP MQTT) Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to
              download. If the file requested is larger than this value, the
              transfer does not start and curl returns with exit code 63.

              A size modifier may be used. For example, Appending 'k' or 'K'
              counts the number as kilobytes, 'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes,
              while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.
              (Added in 7.58.0)

              NOTE: before curl 8.4.0, when the file size is not known prior
              to download, for such files this option has no effect even if
              the file transfer ends up being larger than this given limit.

              Starting with curl 8.4.0, this option aborts the transfer if it
              reaches the threshold during transfer.

              If --max-filesize is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --max-filesize 100K https://example.com

              See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
              (HTTP) Set maximum number of redirections to follow. When -L,
              --location is used, to prevent curl from following too many
              redirects, by default, the limit is set to 50 redirects. Set
              this option to -1 to make it unlimited.

              If --max-redirs is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --max-redirs 3 --location https://example.com

              See also -L, --location.

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Set maximum time in seconds that you allow each transfer to
              take. Prevents your batch jobs from hanging for hours due to
              slow networks or links going down. This option accepts decimal
              values.

              If you enable retrying the transfer (--retry) then the maximum
              time counter is reset each time the transfer is retried. You can
              use --retry-max-time to limit the retry time.

              The decimal value needs to provided using a dot (.) as decimal
              separator - not the local version even if it might be using
              another separator.

              If --max-time is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --max-time 10 https://example.com
               curl --max-time 2.92 https://example.com

              See also --connect-timeout and --retry-max-time.

       --metalink
              This option was previously used to specify a Metalink resource.
              Metalink support is disabled in curl for security reasons (added
              in 7.78.0).

              If --metalink is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --metalink file https://example.com

              See also -Z, --parallel.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enable Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication.

              This option requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI
              support. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports
              GSS-API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user
              option to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
              '-u :' is enough as the username and password from the -u,
              --user option are not actually used.

              Providing --negotiate multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --negotiate -u : https://example.com

              See also --basic, --ntlm, --anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
              Set the netrc file to use. Similar to -n, --netrc, except that
              you also provide the path (absolute or relative).

              It abides by --netrc-optional if specified.

              If --netrc-file is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --netrc-file netrc https://example.com

              See also -n, --netrc, -u, --user and -K, --config. This option
              is mutually exclusive to -n, --netrc.

       --netrc-optional
              Similar to -n, --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
              optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

              Providing --netrc-optional multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-netrc-optional.

              Example:
               curl --netrc-optional https://example.com

              See also --netrc-file. This option is mutually exclusive to -n,
              --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
              Make curl scan the .netrc file in the user's home directory for
              login name and password. This is typically used for FTP on Unix.
              If used with HTTP, curl enables user authentication. See
              netrc(5) and ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl does
              not complain if that file does not have the right permissions
              (it should be neither world- nor group-readable). The
              environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              On Windows two filenames in the home directory are checked:
              .netrc and _netrc, preferring the former. Older versions on
              Windows checked for _netrc only.

              A quick and simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow
              curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with username
              'myself' and password 'secret' could look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com
              login myself
              password secret

              Providing --netrc multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-netrc.

              Example:
               curl --netrc https://example.com

              See also --netrc-file, -K, --config and -u, --user. This option
              is mutually exclusive to --netrc-file and --netrc-optional.

       -:, --next
              Use a separate operation for the following URL and associated
              options. This allows you to send several URL requests, each with
              their own specific options, for example, such as different
              usernames or custom requests for each.

              -:, --next resets all local options and only global ones have
              their values survive over to the operation following the -:,
              --next instruction. Global options include -v, --verbose,
              --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

              For example, you can do both a GET and a POST in a single
              command line:

              curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com

              --next can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl https://example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com
               curl -I https://example.com --next https://example.net/

              See also -Z, --parallel and -K, --config.

       --no-alpn
              (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled by
              default if libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports
              ALPN. ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to
              negotiate HTTP/2 support with the server during https sessions.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
              use --alpn to enable ALPN.

              Providing --no-alpn multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --alpn.

              Example:
               curl --no-alpn https://example.com

              See also --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS.

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work
              situations, curl uses a standard buffered output stream that has
              the effect that it outputs the data in chunks, not necessarily
              exactly when the data arrives. Using this option disables that
              buffering.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
              use --buffer to enable buffering again.

              Providing --no-buffer multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --buffer.

              Example:
               curl --no-buffer https://example.com

              See also -#, --progress-bar.

       --no-clobber
              When used in conjunction with the -o, --output, -J,
              --remote-header-name, -O, --remote-name, or --remote-name-all
              options, curl avoids overwriting files that already exist.
              Instead, a dot and a number gets appended to the name of the
              file that would be created, up to filename.100 after which it
              does not create any file.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --clobber to enforce the clobbering, even if -J,
              --remote-header-name is specified.

              Providing --no-clobber multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --clobber.

              Example:
               curl --no-clobber --output local/dir/file https://example.com

              See also -o, --output and -O, --remote-name. Added in 7.83.0.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection.
              curl otherwise enables them by default.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

              Providing --no-keepalive multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --keepalive.

              Example:
               curl --no-keepalive https://example.com

              See also --keepalive-time.

       --no-npn
              (HTTPS) curl never uses NPN, this option has no effect (added in
              7.86.0).

              Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default if
              libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN is
              used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate HTTP/2
              support with the server during https sessions.

              Providing --no-npn multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --npn.

              Example:
               curl --no-npn https://example.com

              See also --no-alpn and --http2. --no-npn requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS.

       --no-progress-meter
              Option to switch off the progress meter output without muting or
              otherwise affecting warning and informational messages like -s,
              --silent does.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --progress-meter to enable the progress meter again.

              Providing --no-progress-meter multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --progress-meter.

              Example:
               curl --no-progress-meter -o store https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in 7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
              (TLS) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching. By default
              all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing
              should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
              require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

              Providing --no-sessionid multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --sessionid.

              Example:
               curl --no-sessionid https://example.com

              See also -k, --insecure.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated list of hosts for which not to use a proxy, if
              one is specified. The only wildcard is a single "*" character,
              which matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy.
              Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which
              contains the hostname, or the hostname itself. For example,
              "local.com" would match "local.com", "local.com:80", and
              "www.local.com", but not "www.notlocal.com".

              This option overrides the environment variables that disable the
              proxy ("no_proxy" and "NO_PROXY") (added in 7.53.0). If there is
              an environment variable disabling a proxy, you can set the no
              proxy list to "" to override it.

              IP addresses specified to this option can be provided using CIDR
              notation (added in 7.86.0): an appended slash and number
              specifies the number of network bits out of the address to use
              in the comparison. For example "192.168.0.0/16" would match all
              addresses starting with "192.168".

              If --noproxy is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --noproxy "www.example" https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --ntlm-wb
              (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
              the authentication to the separate binary "ntlmauth" application
              that is executed when needed.

              Providing --ntlm-wb multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --ntlm-wb -u user:password https://example.com

              See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Use NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method
              was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is
              a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever people and
              implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
              behavior should not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
              who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented
              authentication method instead, such as Digest.

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

              Providing --ntlm multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --ntlm -u user:password https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ntlm. --ntlm requires that the underlying
              libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is mutually
              exclusive to --basic and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
              (IMAP LDAP POP3 SMTP HTTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH
              2.0 server authentication. The Bearer Token is used in
              conjunction with the username which can be specified as part of
              the --url or -u, --user options.

              The Bearer Token and username are formatted according to RFC
              6750.

              If --oauth2-bearer is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --oauth2-bearer "mF_9.B5f-4.1JqM" https://example.com

              See also --basic, --ntlm and --digest.

       --output-dir <dir>
              Specify the directory in which files should be stored, when -O,
              --remote-name or -o, --output are used.

              The given output directory is used for all URLs and output
              options on the command line, up until the first -:, --next.

              If the specified target directory does not exist, the operation
              fails unless --create-dirs is also used.

              If --output-dir is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --output-dir "tmp" -O https://example.com

              See also -O, --remote-name and -J, --remote-header-name. Added
              in 7.73.0.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to the given file instead of stdout. If you are
              using globbing to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the
              URL and you can use "#" followed by a number in the filename.
              That variable is then replaced with the current string for the
              URL being fetched. Like in:

              curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

              curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].example" -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have. For example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
              line, you can use it like this:

              curl -o aa example.com -o bb example.net

              and the order of the -o options and the URLs does not matter,
              just that the first -o is for the first URL and so on, so the
              above command line can also be written as

              curl example.com example.net -o aa -o bb

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the local
              directories dynamically. Specifying the output as '-' (a single
              dash) passes the output to stdout.

              To suppress response bodies, you can redirect output to
              /dev/null:

              curl example.com -o /dev/null

              Or for Windows:

              curl example.com -o nul

              Specify the filename as single minus to force the output to
              stdout, to override curl's internal binary output in terminal
              prevention:

              curl https://example.com/jpeg -o -

              --output can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -o file https://example.com
               curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"
               curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].example" -o "#1_#2"
               curl -o file https://example.com -o file2 https://example.net

              See also -O, --remote-name, --remote-name-all and -J,
              --remote-header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
              When doing parallel transfers, this option instructs curl that
              it should rather prefer opening up more connections in parallel
              at once rather than waiting to see if new transfers can be added
              as multiplexed streams on another connection.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --parallel-immediate multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-parallel-immediate.

              Example:
               curl --parallel-immediate -Z https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com -o file2

              See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max <num>
              When asked to do parallel transfers, using -Z, --parallel, this
              option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do
              simultaneously.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              The default is 50.

              If --parallel-max is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --parallel-max 100 -Z https://example.com ftp://example.com/

              See also -Z, --parallel. Added in 7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
              Makes curl perform its transfers in parallel as compared to the
              regular serial manner.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --parallel multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-parallel.

              Example:
               curl --parallel https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com -o file2

              See also -:, --next and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSH TLS) Passphrase for the private key.

              If --pass is provided several times, the last set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --pass secret --key file https://example.com

              See also --key and -u, --user.

       --path-as-is
              Do not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given URL path.
              Normally curl squashes or merges them according to standards but
              with this option set you tell it not to do that.

              Providing --path-as-is multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-path-as-is.

              Example:
               curl --path-as-is https://example.com/../../etc/passwd

              See also --request-target.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS) Use the specified public key file (or hashes) to verify
              the peer. This can be a path to a file which contains a single
              public key in PEM or DER format, or any number of base64 encoded
              sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and separated by ';'.

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a
              certificate indicating its identity. A public key is extracted
              from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the
              public key provided to this option, curl aborts the connection
              before sending or receiving any data.

              This option is independent of option -k, --insecure. If you use
              both options together then the peer is still verified by public
              key.

              PEM/DER support:

              OpenSSL and GnuTLS, wolfSSL (added in 7.43.0), mbedTLS , Secure
              Transport macOS 10.7+/iOS 10+ (7.54.1), Schannel (7.58.1)

              sha256 support:

              OpenSSL, GnuTLS and wolfSSL, mbedTLS (added in 7.47.0), Secure
              Transport macOS 10.7+/iOS 10+ (7.54.1), Schannel (7.58.1)

              Other SSL backends not supported.

              If --pinnedpubkey is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Examples:
               curl --pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
               curl --pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

              See also --hostpubsha256.

       --post301
              (HTTP) Respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and do not convert POST requests
              into GET requests when following a 301 redirect. The non-RFC
              behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
              This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Providing --post301 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-post301.

              Example:
               curl --post301 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post302, --post303 and -L, --location.

       --post302
              (HTTP) Respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and do not convert POST requests
              into GET requests when following a 302 redirect. The non-RFC
              behavior is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the
              conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection.
              This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Providing --post302 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-post302.

              Example:
               curl --post302 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post301, --post303 and -L, --location.

       --post303
              (HTTP) Violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and do not convert POST requests
              into GET requests when following 303 redirect. A server may
              require a POST to remain a POST after a 303 redirection. This
              option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              Providing --post303 multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-post303.

              Example:
               curl --post303 --location -d "data" https://example.com

              See also --post302, --post301 and -L, --location.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use the specified SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
              HTTPS -x, --proxy. In such a case curl first connects to the
              SOCKS proxy and then connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or
              HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

              The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol://
              prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://,
              socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific
              SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified makes curl
              default to SOCKS4.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
              assumed to be 1080.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special
              characters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              If --preproxy is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --preproxy socks5://proxy.example -x http://http.example https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --socks5. Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display transfer progress as a simple progress bar
              instead of the standard, more informational, meter.

              This progress bar draws a single line of '#' characters across
              the screen and shows a percentage if the transfer size is known.
              For transfers without a known size, there is a space ship
              (-=o=-) that moves back and forth but only while data is being
              transferred, with a set of flying hash sign symbols on top.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --progress-bar multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-progress-bar.

              Example:
               curl -# -O https://example.com

              See also --styled-output.

       --proto-default <protocol>
              Use protocol for any provided URL missing a scheme.

              An unknown or unsupported protocol causes error
              CURLE_UNSUPPORTED_PROTOCOL.

              This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

              Without this option set, curl guesses protocol based on the
              hostname, see --url for details.

              If --proto-default is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proto-default https ftp.example.com

              See also --proto and --proto-redir.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Limit what protocols to allow on redirects. Protocols denied by
              --proto are not overridden by this option. See --proto for how
              protocols are represented.

              Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

              curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

              By default curl only allows HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS on
              redirects (added in 7.65.2). Specifying all or +all enables all
              protocols on redirects, which is not good for security.

              If --proto-redir is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proto-redir =http,https https://example.com

              See also --proto.

       --proto <protocols>
              Limit what protocols to allow for transfers. Protocols are
              evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and are each a
              protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero or more
              modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +      Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already
                     permitted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -      Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of
                     protocols already permitted.

              =      Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already
                     permitted), though subject to later modification by
                     subsequent entries in the comma separated list.

              For example: --proto -ftps uses the default protocols, but
              disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https also only enables http and https

              Unknown and disabled protocols produce a warning. This allows
              scripts to safely rely on being able to disable potentially
              dangerous protocols, without relying upon support for that
              protocol being built into curl to avoid an error.

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
              is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
              the option.

              If --proto is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proto =http,https,sftp https://example.com

              See also --proto-redir and --proto-default.

       --proxy-anyauth
              Automatically pick a suitable authentication method when
              communicating with the given HTTP proxy. This might cause an
              extra request/response round-trip.

              Providing --proxy-anyauth multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-anyauth --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-basic
              Use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating with the given
              proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host.
              Basic is the default authentication method curl uses with
              proxies.

              Providing --proxy-basic multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-basic --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-ca-native
              (TLS) Use the CA store from the native operating system to
              verify the HTTPS proxy.  By default, curl uses a CA store
              provided in a single file or directory, but when using this
              option it interfaces the operating system's own vault.

              This option works for curl on Windows when built to use OpenSSL,
              wolfSSL (added in 8.3.0) or GnuTLS (added in 8.5.0). When curl
              on Windows is built to use Schannel, this feature is implied and
              curl then only uses the native CA store.

              Providing --proxy-ca-native multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-proxy-ca-native.

              Example:
               curl --ca-native https://example.com

              See also --cacert, --capath and -k, --insecure. Added in 8.2.0.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
              Same as --cacert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-cacert is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cacert CA-file.txt -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-capath, --cacert, --capath and -x, --proxy.
              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
              Same as --capath but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Use the specified certificate directory to verify the proxy.
              Multiple paths can be provided by separated with colon (":")
              (e.g. "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must be in PEM
              format, and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the directory must
              have been processed using the c_rehash utility supplied with
              OpenSSL. Using --proxy-capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to
              make SSL-connections much more efficiently than using
              --proxy-cacert if the --proxy-cacert file contains many CA
              certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value is ignored.

              If --proxy-capath is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-capath /local/directory -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-cacert, -x, --proxy and --capath. Added in
              7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
              Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-cert-type is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cert-type PEM --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-cert. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
              Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-cert is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-cert-type. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
              Same as --ciphers but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection to the HTTPS
              proxy. The list of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read up
              on SSL cipher list details on this URL:

              https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If --proxy-ciphers is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --ciphers, --curves and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
              Same as --crlfile but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-crlfile is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-crlfile rejects.txt -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --crlfile and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
              Use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating with the given
              proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host.

              Providing --proxy-digest multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-digest --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
              (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
              to a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is
              the equivalent option to -H, --header but is for proxy
              communication only like in CONNECT requests when you want a
              separate header sent to the proxy to what is sent to the actual
              remote host.

              curl makes sure that each header you add/replace is sent with
              the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a
              part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they only mess things up for you.

              Headers specified with this option are not included in requests
              that curl knows are not be sent to a proxy.

              This option can take an argument in @filename style, which then
              adds a header for each line in the input file (added in 7.55.0).
              Using @- makes curl read the headers from stdin.

              This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

              --proxy-header can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --proxy-header "X-First-Name: Joe" -x http://proxy https://example.com
               curl --proxy-header "User-Agent: surprise" -x http://proxy https://example.com
               curl --proxy-header "Host:" -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --proxy-http2
              (HTTP) Negotiate HTTP/2 with an HTTPS proxy. The proxy might
              still only offer HTTP/1 and then curl sticks to using that
              version.

              This has no effect for any other kinds of proxies.

              Providing --proxy-http2 multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-proxy-http2.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-http2 -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy. --proxy-http2 requires that the underlying
              libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. Added in 8.1.0.

       --proxy-insecure
              Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Every secure connection curl makes is verified to be secure
              before the transfer takes place. This option makes curl skip the
              verification step with a proxy and proceed without checking.

              When this option is not used for a proxy using HTTPS, curl
              verifies the proxy's TLS certificate before it continues: that
              the certificate contains the right name which matches the
              hostname and that the certificate has been signed by a CA
              certificate present in the cert store. See this online resource
              for further details: https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

              WARNING: using this option makes the transfer to the proxy
              insecure.

              Providing --proxy-insecure multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-proxy-insecure.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-insecure -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and -k, --insecure. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type <type>
              Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-key-type is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-key-type DER --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-key and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
              Same as --key but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-key is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-key-type and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Use HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP
              Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

              Providing --proxy-negotiate multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-negotiate --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-ntlm
              Use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given
              proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host.

              Providing --proxy-ntlm multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ntlm --proxy-user user:passwd -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
              Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-pass is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-pass secret --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-key. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS) Use the specified public key file (or hashes) to verify
              the proxy. This can be a path to a file which contains a single
              public key in PEM or DER format, or any number of base64 encoded
              sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and separated by ';'.

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server sends a
              certificate indicating its identity. A public key is extracted
              from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the
              public key provided to this option, curl aborts the connection
              before sending or receiving any data.

              If --proxy-pinnedpubkey is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Examples:
               curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
               curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

              See also --pinnedpubkey and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.59.0.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
              Set the service name for proxy negotiation.

              If --proxy-service-name is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-service-name "shrubbery" -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --service-name and -x, --proxy.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
              Same as --ssl-allow-beast but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Providing --proxy-ssl-allow-beast multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-proxy-ssl-allow-beast.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ssl-allow-beast -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --ssl-allow-beast and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert
              Same as --ssl-auto-client-cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              This is only supported by Schannel.

              Providing --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert multiple times has no
              extra effect.  Disable it again with --no-proxy-ssl-auto-client-
              cert.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also --ssl-auto-client-cert and -x, --proxy. Added in
              7.77.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
              (TLS) Specify which cipher suites to use in the connection to
              your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
              suites must specify valid ciphers.  Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher
              suite details on this URL:

              https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              This option is currently used only when curl is built to use
              OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
              you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the
              --proxy-ciphers option.

              If --proxy-tls13-ciphers is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --tls13-ciphers, --curves and --proxy-ciphers. Added in
              7.61.0.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
              Same as --tlsauthtype but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-tlsauthtype is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsauthtype SRP -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
              Same as --tlspassword but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-tlspassword is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlspassword passwd -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
              Same as --tlsuser but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              If --proxy-tlsuser is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsuser smith -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlspassword. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
              Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Providing --proxy-tlsv1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-tlsv1 -x https://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the username and password to use for proxy
              authentication.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either
              Negotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to
              select the username and password from your environment by
              specifying a single colon with this option: "-U :".

              On systems where it works, curl hides the given option argument
              from process listings. This is not enough to protect credentials
              from possibly getting seen by other users on the same system as
              they still are visible for a moment before cleared. Such
              sensitive data should be retrieved from a file instead or
              similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

              If --proxy-user is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy-user smith:secret -x proxy https://example.com

              See also --proxy-pass.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use the specified proxy.

              The proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix. No
              protocol specified or http:// it is treated as an HTTP proxy.
              Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request a
              specific SOCKS version to be used.

              Unix domain sockets are supported for socks proxy. Set localhost
              for the host part. e.g. socks5h://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

              HTTPS proxy support works set with the https:// protocol prefix
              for OpenSSL and GnuTLS (added in 7.52.0). It also works for
              BearSSL, mbedTLS, rustls, Schannel, Secure Transport and wolfSSL
              (added in 7.87.0).

              Unrecognized and unsupported proxy protocols cause an error
              (added in 7.52.0).  Ancient curl versions ignored unknown
              schemes and used http:// instead.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
              assumed to be 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables that set
              the proxy to use. If there is an environment variable setting a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy are
              transparently converted to HTTP. It means that certain protocol
              specific operations might not be available. This is not the case
              if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p,
              --proxytunnel option.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special
              characters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              The proxy host can be specified the same way as the proxy
              environment variables, including the protocol prefix (http://)
              and the embedded user + password.

              When a proxy is used, the active FTP mode as set with -P,
              --ftp-port, cannot be used.

              If --proxy is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --proxy http://proxy.example https://example.com

              See also --socks5 and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option -x,
              --proxy, is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy
              specifies an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

              Providing --proxy1.0 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --proxy1.0 http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy, --socks5 and --preproxy.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this option makes curl
              tunnel the traffic through the proxy. The tunnel approach is
              made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the
              proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number curl wants
              to tunnel through to.

              To suppress proxy CONNECT response headers when curl is set to
              output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

              Providing --proxytunnel multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-proxytunnel.

              Example:
               curl --proxytunnel -x http://proxy https://example.com

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SFTP SCP) Public key filename. Allows you to provide your
              public key in this separate file.

              curl attempts to automatically extract the public key from the
              private key file, so passing this option is generally not
              required. Note that this public key extraction requires libcurl
              to be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher that is
              itself linked against OpenSSL.

              If --pubkey is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --pubkey file.pub sftp://example.com/

              See also --pass.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP
              server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.

              (FTP only) To make commands be sent after curl has changed the
              working directory, just before the file transfer command(s),
              prefix the command with a '+'. This is not performed when a
              directory listing is performed.

              You may specify any number of commands.

              By default curl stops at first failure. To make curl continue
              even if the command fails, prefix the command with an asterisk
              (*). Otherwise, if the server returns failure for one of the
              commands, the entire operation is aborted.

              You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959
              defines to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to
              SFTP servers.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP
              quote commands itself before sending them to the server.
              Filenames may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special
              characters. Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote
              commands:

              atime date file
                     The atime command sets the last access time of the file
                     named by the file operand. The date expression can be all
                     sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man page
                     for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

              chgrp group file
                     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by
                     the file operand to the group ID specified by the group
                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the
                     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
                     number.

              chown user file
                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
                     file operand to the user ID specified by the user
                     operand. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                     target_file location pointing to the source_file
                     location.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the
                     directory_name operand.

              mtime date file
                     The mtime command sets the last modification time of the
                     file named by the file operand. The date expression can
                     be all sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man
                     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute path name of the
                     current working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by
                     the source operand to the destination path named by the
                     target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file
                     operand.

              rmdir directory
                     The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified
                     by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.


              --quote can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --quote "DELE file" ftp://example.com/foo

              See also -X, --request.

       --random-file <file>
              Deprecated option. This option is ignored (added in 7.84.0).
              Prior to that it only had an effect on curl if built to use old
              versions of OpenSSL.

              Specify the path name to file containing random data. The data
              may be used to seed the random engine for SSL connections.

              If --random-file is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --random-file rubbish https://example.com

              See also --egd-file.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP FTP SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial
              document) from an HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE.
              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499  specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999
                     specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500   specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-  specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1 specifies the first and last byte only(*)(HTTP)

              100-199,500-599
                     specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*) (HTTP)

              (*) = NOTE that these make the server reply with a multipart
              response, which is returned as-is by curl! Parsing or otherwise
              transforming this response is the responsibility of the caller.

              Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop'
              fields of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit
              character is given in the range, the server's response is
              unspecified, depending on the server's configuration.

              Many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature enabled, so that
              when you attempt to get a range, curl instead gets the whole
              document.

              FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple
              'start-stop' syntax (optionally with one of the numbers
              omitted). FTP use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

              If --range is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --range 22-44 https://example.com

              See also -C, --continue-at and -a, --append.

       --rate <max request rate>
              Specify the maximum transfer frequency you allow curl to use -
              in number of transfer starts per time unit (sometimes called
              request rate). Without this option, curl starts the next
              transfer as fast as possible.

              If given several URLs and a transfer completes faster than the
              allowed rate, curl waits until the next transfer is started to
              maintain the requested rate. This option has no effect when -Z,
              --parallel is used.

              The request rate is provided as "N/U" where N is an integer
              number and U is a time unit. Supported units are 's' (second),
              'm' (minute), 'h' (hour) and 'd' /(day, as in a 24 hour unit).
              The default time unit, if no "/U" is provided, is number of
              transfers per hour.

              If curl is told to allow 10 requests per minute, it does not
              start the next request until 6 seconds have elapsed since the
              previous transfer was started.

              This function uses millisecond resolution. If the allowed
              frequency is set more than 1000 per second, it instead runs
              unrestricted.

              When retrying transfers, enabled with --retry, the separate
              retry delay logic is used and not this setting.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              If --rate is provided several times, the last set value is used.

              Examples:
               curl --rate 2/s https://example.com ...
               curl --rate 3/h https://example.com ...
               curl --rate 14/m https://example.com ...

              See also --limit-rate and --retry-delay. Added in 7.84.0.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of
              content or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on
              unaltered, raw.

              Providing --raw multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-raw.

              Example:
               curl --raw https://example.com

              See also --tr-encoding.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Set the referrer URL in the HTTP request. This can also
              be set with the -H, --header flag of course. When used with -L,
              --location you can append ";auto"" to the -e, --referer URL to
              make curl automatically set the previous URL when it follows a
              Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if
              you do not set an initial -e, --referer.

              If --referer is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --referer "https://fake.example" https://example.com
               curl --referer "https://fake.example;auto" -L https://example.com
               curl --referer ";auto" -L https://example.com

              See also -A, --user-agent and -H, --header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) Tell the -O, --remote-name option to use the
              server-specified Content-Disposition filename instead of
              extracting a filename from the URL. If the server-provided
              filename contains a path, that is stripped off before the
              filename is used.

              The file is saved in the current directory, or in the directory
              specified with --output-dir.

              If the server specifies a filename and a file with that name
              already exists in the destination directory, it is not
              overwritten and an error occurs - unless you allow it by using
              the --clobber option. If the server does not specify a filename
              then this option has no effect.

              There is no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
              filename, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
              filenames.

              This feature uses the name from the "filename" field, it does
              not yet support the "filename*" field (filenames with explicit
              character sets).

              WARNING: Exercise judicious use of this option, especially on
              Windows. A rogue server could send you the name of a DLL or
              other file that could be loaded automatically by Windows or some
              third party software.

              Providing --remote-header-name multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-remote-header-name.

              Example:
               curl -OJ https://example.com/file

              See also -O, --remote-name.

       --remote-name-all
              Change the default action for all given URLs to be dealt with as
              if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. If you want to
              disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-all has been
              used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

              Providing --remote-name-all multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remote-name-all.

              Example:
               curl --remote-name-all ftp://example.com/file1 ftp://example.com/file2

              See also -O, --remote-name.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
              (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The file is saved in the current working directory. If you want
              the file saved in a different directory, make sure you change
              the current working directory before invoking curl with this
              option or use --output-dir.

              The remote filename to use for saving is extracted from the
              given URL, nothing else, and if it already exists it is
              overwritten. If you want the server to be able to choose the
              filename refer to -J, --remote-header-name which can be used in
              addition to this option. If the server chooses a filename and
              that name already exists it is not overwritten.

              There is no URL decoding done on the filename. If it has %20 or
              other URL encoded parts of the name, they end up as-is as
              filename.

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

              --remote-name can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl -O https://example.com/filename

              See also --remote-name-all, --output-dir and -J,
              --remote-header-name.

       -R, --remote-time
              Makes curl attempt to figure out the timestamp of the remote
              file that is getting downloaded, and if that is available make
              the local file get that same timestamp.

              Providing --remote-time multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remote-time.

              Example:
               curl --remote-time -o foo https://example.com

              See also -O, --remote-name and -z, --time-cond.

       --remove-on-error
              Remove output file if an error occurs. If curl returns an error
              when told to save output in a local file. This prevents curl
              from leaving a partial file in the case of an error during
              transfer.

              If the output is not a regular file, this option has no effect.

              Providing --remove-on-error multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-remove-on-error.

              Example:
               curl --remove-on-error -o output https://example.com

              See also -f, --fail. Added in 7.83.0.

       --request-target <path>
              (HTTP) Use an alternative target (path) instead of using the
              path as provided in the URL. Particularly useful when wanting to
              issue HTTP requests without leading slash or other data that
              does not follow the regular URL pattern, like "OPTIONS *".

              curl passes on the verbatim string you give it its the request
              without any filter or other safe guards. That includes white
              space and control characters.

              If --request-target is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --request-target "*" -X OPTIONS https://example.com

              See also -X, --request. Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <method>
              Change the method to use when starting the transfer.

              curl passes on the verbatim string you give it its the request
              without any filter or other safe guards. That includes white
              space and control characters.

              HTTP   Specifies a custom request method to use when
                     communicating with the HTTP server. The specified request
                     method is used instead of the method otherwise used
                     (which defaults to GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification
                     for details and explanations. Common additional HTTP
                     requests include PUT and DELETE, while related
                     technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and
                     more.

                     Normally you do not need this option. All sorts of GET,
                     HEAD, POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using
                     dedicated command line options.

                     This option only changes the actual word used in the HTTP
                     request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. For
                     example if you want to make a proper HEAD request, using
                     -X HEAD does not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head
                     option.

                     The method string you set with -X, --request is used for
                     all requests, which if you for example use -L, --location
                     may cause unintended side-effects when curl does not
                     change request method according to the HTTP 30x response
                     codes - and similar.

              FTP    Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST
                     when doing file lists with FTP.

              POP3   Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
                     RETR.


              IMAP   Specifies a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST.

              SMTP   Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
                     VRFY.


              If --request is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl -X "DELETE" https://example.com
               curl -X NLST ftp://example.com/

              See also --request-target.

       --resolve <[+]host:port:addr[,addr]...>
              Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair.
              Using this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified
              address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to
              be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided
              on the command line. The port number should be the number used
              for the specific protocol the host is used for. It means you
              need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
              host but different ports.

              By specifying "*" as host you can tell curl to resolve any host
              and specific port pair to the specified address. Wildcard is
              resolved last so any --resolve with a specific host and port is
              used first.

              The provided address set by this option is used even if -4,
              --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

              By prefixing the host with a '+' you can make the entry time out
              after curl's default timeout (1 minute). Note that this only
              makes sense for long running parallel transfers with a lot of
              files. In such cases, if this option is used curl tries to
              resolve the host as it normally would once the timeout has
              expired.

              Support for providing the IP address within [brackets] was added
              in 7.57.0.

              Support for providing multiple IP addresses per entry was added
              in 7.59.0.

              Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

              Support for the '+' prefix was added in 7.75.0.

              --resolve can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --resolve example.com:443:127.0.0.1 https://example.com

              See also --connect-to and --alt-svc.

       --retry-all-errors
              Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

              This option is the "sledgehammer" of retrying. Do not use this
              option by default (for example in your curlrc), there may be
              unintended consequences such as sending or receiving duplicate
              data. Do not use with redirected input or output. You might be
              better off handling your unique problems in a shell script.
              Please read the example below.

              WARNING: For server compatibility curl attempts to retry failed
              flaky transfers as close as possible to how they were started,
              but this is not possible with redirected input or output. For
              example, before retrying it removes output data from a failed
              partial transfer that was written to an output file. However
              this is not true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which
              are not reset. We strongly suggest you do not parse or record
              output via redirect in combination with this option, since you
              may receive duplicate data.

              By default curl does not return error for transfers with an HTTP
              response code that indicates an HTTP error, if the transfer was
              successful. For example, if a server replies 404 Not Found and
              the reply is fully received then that is not an error. When
              --retry is used then curl retries on some HTTP response codes
              that indicate transient HTTP errors, but that does not include
              most 4xx response codes such as 404. If you want to retry on all
              response codes that indicate HTTP errors (4xx and 5xx) then
              combine with -f, --fail.

              Providing --retry-all-errors multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-retry-all-errors.

              Example:
               curl --retry 5 --retry-all-errors https://example.com

              See also --retry. Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
              In addition to the other conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
              transient error too for --retry. This option is used together
              with --retry.

              Providing --retry-connrefused multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-retry-connrefused.

              Example:
               curl --retry-connrefused --retry 7 https://example.com

              See also --retry and --retry-all-errors. Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a
              transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the
              default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option is
              only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
              zero makes curl use the default backoff time.

              If --retry-delay is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --retry-delay 5 --retry 7 https://example.com

              See also --retry.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt.
              Retries are done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer has
              not reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer has not
              reached the limit, the request is made and while performing, it
              may take longer than this given time period. To limit a single
              request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time. Set this option to
              zero to not timeout retries.

              If --retry-max-time is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --retry-max-time 30 --retry 10 https://example.com

              See also --retry.

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform a
              transfer, it retries this number of times before giving up.
              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the
              default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
              response code or an HTTP 408, 429, 500, 502, 503 or 504 response
              code.

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it first waits one
              second and then for all forthcoming retries it doubles the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then remains
              delay between the rest of the retries. By using --retry-delay
              you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also
              --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries.

              curl complies with the Retry-After: response header if one was
              present to know when to issue the next retry (added in 7.66.0).

              If --retry is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --retry 7 https://example.com

              See also --retry-max-time.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
              Use this authorization identity (authzid), during SASL PLAIN
              authentication, in addition to the authentication identity
              (authcid) as specified by -u, --user.

              If the option is not specified, the server derives the authzid
              from the authcid, but if specified, and depending on the server
              implementation, it may be used to access another user's inbox,
              that the user has been granted access to, or a shared mailbox
              for example.

              If --sasl-authzid is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --sasl-authzid zid imap://example.com/

              See also --login-options. Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
              Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

              Providing --sasl-ir multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-sasl-ir.

              Example:
               curl --sasl-ir imap://example.com/

              See also --sasl-authzid.

       --service-name <name>
              Set the service name for SPNEGO.

              If --service-name is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --service-name sockd/server https://example.com

              See also --negotiate and --proxy-service-name.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
              if it fails.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --show-error multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-show-error.

              Example:
               curl --show-error --silent https://example.com

              See also --no-progress-meter.

       -s, --silent
              Silent or quiet mode. Do not show progress meter or error
              messages. Makes Curl mute. It still outputs the data you ask
              for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
              it.

              Use -S, --show-error in addition to this option to disable
              progress meter but still show error messages.

              Providing --silent multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-silent.

              Example:
               curl -s https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose, --stderr and --no-progress-meter.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. Using this socket type
              make curl resolve the hostname and passing the address on to the
              proxy.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for
              host, e.g.  "socks4://localhost/path/to/socket.sock"

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy
              with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at the same time
              proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy (added in 7.52.0). In
              such a case, curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then
              connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If --socks4 is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --socks4 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks4a, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. This asks the proxy to
              resolve the hostname.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for
              host, e.g.  "socks4a://localhost/path/to/socket.sock"

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy
              with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

              --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at the same time
              -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy (added in 7.52.0).
              In such a case, curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then
              connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If --socks4a is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --socks4a hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks4, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks5-basic
              Use username/password authentication when connecting to a SOCKS5
              proxy. The username/password authentication is enabled by
              default. Use --socks5-gssapi to force GSS-API authentication to
              SOCKS5 proxies.

              Providing --socks5-basic multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-basic --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is
              negotiated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be
              protected, but the NEC reference implementation does not. The
              option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of
              the protection mode negotiation.

              Providing --socks5-gssapi-nec multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-socks5-gssapi-nec.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi-nec --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
              Set the service name for a socks server. Default is
              rcmd/server-fqdn.

              If --socks5-gssapi-service is provided several times, the last
              set value is used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi-service sockd --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi
              Use GSS-API authentication when connecting to a SOCKS5 proxy.
              The GSS-API authentication is enabled by default (if curl is
              compiled with GSS-API support). Use --socks5-basic to force
              username/password authentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Providing --socks5-gssapi multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-socks5-gssapi.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-gssapi --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

              See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the
              hostname). If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for
              host, e.g.  "socks5h://localhost/path/to/socket.sock"

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5
              hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol
              prefix.

              --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at the same time
              -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy (added in 7.52.0).
              In such a case, curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then
              connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If --socks5-hostname is provided several times, the last set
              value is used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5-hostname proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

              See also --socks5 and --socks4a.

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the hostname
              locally. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              To specify proxy on a unix domain socket, use localhost for
              host, e.g.  "socks5://localhost/path/to/socket.sock"

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy
              with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at the same time
              -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy (added in 7.52.0).
              In such a case, curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then
              connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
              or LDAP.

              If --socks5 is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --socks5 proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

              See also --socks5-hostname and --socks4a.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If a transfer is slower than this set speed (in bytes per
              second) for a given number of seconds, it gets aborted. The time
              period is set with -y, --speed-time and is 30 seconds by
              default.

              If --speed-limit is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

              See also -y, --speed-time, --limit-rate and -m, --max-time.

       -y, --speed-time <seconds>
              If a transfer runs slower than speed-limit bytes per second
              during a speed-time period, the transfer is aborted. If
              speed-time is used, the default speed-limit is 1 unless set with
              -Y, --speed-limit.

              This option controls transfers (in both directions) but does not
              affect slow connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try the
              --connect-timeout option.

              If --speed-time is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

              See also -Y, --speed-limit and --limit-rate.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              (TLS) Do not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and TLS1.0
              protocols known as BEAST. If this option is not used, the SSL
              layer may use workarounds known to cause interoperability
              problems with some older SSL implementations.

              WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
              flag you ask for exactly that.

              Providing --ssl-allow-beast multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ssl-allow-beast.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-allow-beast https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ssl-allow-beast and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-auto-client-cert
              (TLS) (Schannel) Automatically locate and use a client
              certificate for authentication, when requested by the server.
              Since the server can request any certificate that supports
              client authentication in the OS certificate store it could be a
              privacy violation and unexpected.

              Providing --ssl-auto-client-cert multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-ssl-auto-client-cert.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-auto-client-cert https://example.com

              See also --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert. Added in 7.77.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
              (TLS) (Schannel) Disable certificate revocation checks. WARNING:
              this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you
              ask for exactly that.

              Providing --ssl-no-revoke multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ssl-no-revoke.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-no-revoke https://example.com

              See also --crlfile.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP LDAP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.
              Terminates the connection if the transfer cannot be upgraded to
              use SSL/TLS.

              This option is handled in LDAP (added in 7.81.0). It is fully
              supported by the OpenLDAP backend and rejected by the generic
              ldap backend if explicit TLS is required.

              This option is unnecessary if you use a URL scheme that in
              itself implies immediate and implicit use of TLS, like for FTPS,
              IMAPS, POP3S, SMTPS and LDAPS. Such a transfer always fails if
              the TLS handshake does not work.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd.

              Providing --ssl-reqd multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-ssl-reqd.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-reqd ftp://example.com

              See also --ssl and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
              (TLS) (Schannel) Ignore certificate revocation checks when they
              failed due to missing/offline distribution points for the
              revocation check lists.

              Providing --ssl-revoke-best-effort multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-ssl-revoke-best-effort.

              Example:
               curl --ssl-revoke-best-effort https://example.com

              See also --crlfile and -k, --insecure. Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP LDAP) Warning: this is considered an
              insecure option. Consider using --ssl-reqd instead to be sure
              curl upgrades to a secure connection.

              Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection. Reverts to a non-secure
              connection if the server does not support SSL/TLS. See also
              --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for different levels of
              encryption required.

              This option is handled in LDAP (added in 7.81.0). It is fully
              supported by the OpenLDAP backend and ignored by the generic
              ldap backend.

              Please note that a server may close the connection if the
              negotiation does not succeed.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl. That option name
              can still be used but might be removed in a future version.

              Providing --ssl multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable it
              again with --no-ssl.

              Example:
               curl --ssl pop3://example.com/

              See also --ssl-reqd, -k, --insecure and --ciphers.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) This option previously asked curl to use SSLv2, but is now
              ignored (added in 7.77.0). SSLv2 is widely considered insecure
              (see RFC 6176).

              Providing --sslv2 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --sslv2 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is
              mutually exclusive to -3, --sslv3 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1
              and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) This option previously asked curl to use SSLv3, but is now
              ignored (added in 7.77.0). SSLv3 is widely considered insecure
              (see RFC 7568).

              Providing --sslv3 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --sslv3 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is
              mutually exclusive to -2, --sslv2 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1
              and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
              the filename is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              If --stderr is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --stderr output.txt https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
              Enable automatic use of bold font styles when writing HTTP
              headers to the terminal. Use --no-styled-output to switch them
              off.

              Styled output requires a terminal that supports bold fonts. This
              feature is not present on curl for Windows due to lack of this
              capability.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --styled-output multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-styled-output.

              Example:
               curl --styled-output -I https://example.com

              See also -I, --head and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
              When -p, --proxytunnel is used and a CONNECT request is made do
              not output proxy CONNECT response headers. This option is meant
              to be used with -D, --dump-header or -i, --include which are
              used to show protocol headers in the output. It has no effect on
              debug options such as -v, --verbose or --trace, or any
              statistics.

              Providing --suppress-connect-headers multiple times has no extra
              effect.  Disable it again with --no-suppress-connect-headers.

              Example:
               curl --suppress-connect-headers --include -x proxy https://example.com

              See also -D, --dump-header, -i, --include and -p, --proxytunnel.
              Added in 7.54.0.

       --tcp-fastopen
              Enable use of TCP Fast Open (RFC 7413). TCP Fast Open is a TCP
              extension that allows data to get sent earlier over the
              connection (before the final handshake ACK) if the client and
              server have been connected previously.

              Providing --tcp-fastopen multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tcp-fastopen.

              Example:
               curl --tcp-fastopen https://example.com

              See also --false-start.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option.

              curl sets this option by default and you need to explicitly
              switch it off if you do not want it on (added in 7.50.2).

              Providing --tcp-nodelay multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tcp-nodelay.

              Example:
               curl --tcp-nodelay https://example.com

              See also -N, --no-buffer.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              `TTYPE=<term>`
                     Sets the terminal type.

              `XDISPLOC=<X display>`
                     Sets the X display location.

              `NEW_ENV=<var,val>`
                     Sets an environment variable.


              --telnet-option can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl -t TTYPE=vt100 telnet://example.com/

              See also -K, --config.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set the TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be 512 or larger). This
              is the block size that curl tries to use when transferring data
              to or from a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes are used.

              If --tftp-blksize is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --tftp-blksize 1024 tftp://example.com/file

              See also --tftp-no-options.

       --tftp-no-options
              (TFTP) Do not to send TFTP options requests. This improves
              interop with some legacy servers that do not acknowledge or
              properly implement TFTP options. When this option is used
              --tftp-blksize is ignored.

              Providing --tftp-no-options multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tftp-no-options.

              Example:
               curl --tftp-no-options tftp://192.168.0.1/

              See also --tftp-blksize.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
              (HTTP FTP) Request a file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has been modified before that
              time. The date expression can be all sorts of date strings or if
              it does not match any internal ones, it is treated as a filename
              and curl tries to get the modification date (mtime) from that
              file instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date
              expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If provided a non-existing file, curl outputs a warning about
              that fact and proceeds to do the transfer without a time
              condition.

              If --time-cond is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl -z "Wed 01 Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
               curl -z "-Wed 01 Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
               curl -z file https://example.com

              See also --etag-compare and -R, --remote-time.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
              (TLS) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
              acceptable version is set by tlsv1.0, tlsv1.1, tlsv1.2 or
              tlsv1.3.

              If the connection is done without TLS, this option has no
              effect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

              default
                     Use up to recommended TLS version.

              1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

              1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

              1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

              1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.


              If --tls-max is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Examples:
               curl --tls-max 1.2 https://example.com
               curl --tls-max 1.3 --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1, --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3.
              --tls-max requires that the underlying libcurl was built to
              support TLS. Added in 7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <list>
              (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection if
              it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers suites must specify
              valid ciphers. Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite details on this
              URL:

              https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              This option is currently used only when curl is built to use
              OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later, or Schannel. If you are using a
              different SSL backend you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites
              by using the --ciphers option.

              If --tls13-ciphers is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 https://example.com

              See also --ciphers, --curves and --proxy-tls13-ciphers. Added in
              7.61.0.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
              (TLS) Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only supported
              option is "SRP", for TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and
              --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this
              option defaults to "SRP". This option works only if the
              underlying libcurl is built with TLS-SRP support, which requires
              OpenSSL or GnuTLS with TLS-SRP support.

              If --tlsauthtype is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --tlsauthtype SRP https://example.com

              See also --tlsuser.

       --tlspassword <string>
              (TLS) Set password for use with the TLS authentication method
              specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be
              set.

              This option does not work with TLS 1.3.

              If --tlspassword is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser user https://example.com

              See also --tlsuser.

       --tlsuser <name>
              (TLS) Set username for use with the TLS authentication method
              specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also
              is set.

              This option does not work with TLS 1.3.

              If --tlsuser is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser user https://example.com

              See also --tlspassword.

       --tlsv1.0
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 or later when
              connecting to a remote TLS server.

              In old versions of curl this option was documented to allow
              _only_ TLS 1.0.  That behavior was inconsistent depending on the
              TLS library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS
              version.

              Providing --tlsv1.0 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.0 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3.

       --tlsv1.1
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 or later when
              connecting to a remote TLS server.

              In old versions of curl this option was documented to allow
              _only_ TLS 1.1.  That behavior was inconsistent depending on the
              TLS library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS
              version.

              Providing --tlsv1.1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.1 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3 and --tls-max.

       --tlsv1.2
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 or later when
              connecting to a remote TLS server.

              In old versions of curl this option was documented to allow
              _only_ TLS 1.2.  That behavior was inconsistent depending on the
              TLS library. Use --tls-max if you want to set a maximum TLS
              version.

              Providing --tlsv1.2 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.3 and --tls-max.

       --tlsv1.3
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.3 or later when
              connecting to a remote TLS server.

              If the connection is done without TLS, this option has no
              effect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

              Note that TLS 1.3 is not supported by all TLS backends.

              Providing --tlsv1.3 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1.3 https://example.com

              See also --tlsv1.2 and --tls-max. Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (TLS) Use at least TLS version 1.x when negotiating with a
              remote TLS server. That means TLS version 1.0 or higher

              Providing --tlsv1 multiple times has no extra effect.

              Example:
               curl --tlsv1 https://example.com

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1 requires that the
              underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This option is
              mutually exclusive to --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
              of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while
              receiving it.

              Providing --tr-encoding multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-tr-encoding.

              Example:
               curl --tr-encoding https://example.com

              See also --compressed.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Save a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, in the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only
              shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output that
              might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              Note that verbose output of curl activities and network traffic
              might contain sensitive data, including usernames, credentials
              or secret data content. Be aware and be careful when sharing
              trace logs with others.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              If --trace-ascii is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --trace-ascii log.txt https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and --trace. This option is mutually
              exclusive to --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace-config <string>
              Set configuration for trace output. A comma-separated list of
              components where detailed output can be made available from.
              Names are case-insensitive.  Specify 'all' to enable all trace
              components.

              In addition to trace component names, specify "ids" and "time"
              to avoid extra --trace-ids or --trace-time parameters.

              See the curl_global_trace(3) man page for more details.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              --trace-config can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --trace-config ids,http/2 https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and --trace. Added in 8.3.0.

       --trace-ids
              Prepends the transfer and connection identifiers to each trace
              or verbose line that curl displays.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --trace-ids multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-trace-ids.

              Example:
               curl --trace-ids --trace-ascii output https://example.com

              See also --trace and -v, --verbose. Added in 8.2.0.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
              displays.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --trace-time multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-trace-time.

              Example:
               curl --trace-time --trace-ascii output https://example.com

              See also --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace <file>
              Save a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, in the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. Use "%" as
              filename to have the output sent to stderr.

              Note that verbose output of curl activities and network traffic
              might contain sensitive data, including usernames, credentials
              or secret data content. Be aware and be careful when sharing
              trace logs with others.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              If --trace is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl --trace log.txt https://example.com

              See also --trace-ascii, --trace-config, --trace-ids and
              --trace-time. This option is mutually exclusive to -v, --verbose
              and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
              the network.

              If --unix-socket is provided several times, the last set value
              is used.

              Example:
               curl --unix-socket socket-path https://example.com

              See also --abstract-unix-socket.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              Upload the specified local file to the remote URL.

              If there is no file part in the specified URL, curl appends the
              local file name to the end of the URL before the operation
              starts. You must use a trailing slash (/) on the last directory
              to prove to curl that there is no filename or curl thinks that
              your last directory name is the remote filename to use.

              When putting the local filename at the end of the URL, curl
              ignores what is on the left side of any slash (/) or backslash
              (\) used in the filename and only appends what is on the right
              side of the rightmost such character.

              Use the filename "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a
              given file.  Alternately, the filename "." (a single period) may
              be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking mode to
              allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded.

              If this option is used with an HTTP(S) URL, the PUT method is
              used.

              You can specify one -T, --upload-file for each URL on the
              command line. Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies what
              to upload and to where. curl also supports globbing of the -T,
              --upload-file argument, meaning that you can upload multiple
              files to a single URL by using the same URL globbing style
              supported in the URL.

              When uploading to an SMTP server: the uploaded data is assumed
              to be RFC 5322 formatted. It has to feature the necessary set of
              headers and mail body formatted correctly by the user as curl
              does not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

              --upload-file can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl -T file https://example.com
               curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/
               curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" https://example.com

              See also -G, --get, -I, --head, -X, --request and -d, --data.

       --url-query <data>
              (all) Add a piece of data, usually a name + value pair, to the
              end of the URL query part. The syntax is identical to that used
              for --data-urlencode with one extension:

              If the argument starts with a '+' (plus), the rest of the string
              is provided as-is unencoded.

              The query part of a URL is the one following the question mark
              on the right end.

              --url-query can be used several times in a command line

              Examples:
               curl --url-query name=val https://example.com
               curl --url-query =encodethis http://example.net/foo
               curl --url-query name@file https://example.com
               curl --url-query @fileonly https://example.com
               curl --url-query "+name=%20foo" https://example.com

              See also --data-urlencode and -G, --get. Added in 7.87.0.

       --url <url>
              Specify a URL to fetch.

              If the given URL is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or
              "ftp://" etc) then curl makes a guess based on the host. If the
              outermost subdomain name matches DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP, POP3 or
              SMTP then that protocol is used, otherwise HTTP is used.
              Guessing can be avoided by providing a full URL including the
              scheme, or disabled by setting a default protocol (added in
              7.45.0), see --proto-default for details.

              To control where this URL is written, use the -o, --output or
              the -O, --remote-name options.

              WARNING: On Windows, particular "file://" accesses can be
              converted to network accesses by the operating system. Beware!

              --url can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --url https://example.com

              See also -:, --next and -K, --config.

       -B, --use-ascii
              (FTP LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer mode. For FTP, this can also be
              enforced by using a URL that ends with ";type=A". This option
              causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

              Providing --use-ascii multiple times has no extra effect.
              Disable it again with --no-use-ascii.

              Example:
               curl -B ftp://example.com/README

              See also --crlf and --data-ascii.

       -A, --user-agent <name>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              To encode blanks in the string, surround the string with single
              quote marks. This header can also be set with the -H, --header
              or the --proxy-header options.

              If you give an empty argument to -A, --user-agent (""), it
              removes the header completely from the request. If you prefer a
              blank header, you can set it to a single space (" ").

              If --user-agent is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl -A "Agent 007" https://example.com

              See also -H, --header and --proxy-header.

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify the username and password to use for server
              authentication. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you simply specify the username, curl prompts for a password.

              The username and passwords are split up on the first colon,
              which makes it impossible to use a colon in the username with
              this option. The password can, still.

              On systems where it works, curl hides the given option argument
              from process listings. This is not enough to protect credentials
              from possibly getting seen by other users on the same system as
              they still are visible for a moment before cleared. Such
              sensitive data should be retrieved from a file instead or
              similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

              When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based server you should
              include the Windows domain name in the username, in order for
              the server to successfully obtain a Kerberos Ticket. If you do
              not, then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

              When using NTLM, the username can be specified simply as the
              username, without the domain, if there is a single domain and
              forest in your setup for example.

              To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or
              UPN (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
              user@example.com respectively.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform
              Kerberos V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you
              can tell curl to select the username and password from your
              environment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u
              :".

              If --user is provided several times, the last set value is used.

              Example:
               curl -u user:secret https://example.com

              See also -n, --netrc and -K, --config.

       --variable <[%]name=text/@file>
              Set a variable with "name=content" or "name@file" (where "file"
              can be stdin if set to a single dash ("-")). The name is a case
              sensitive identifier that must consist of no other letters than
              a-z, A-Z, 0-9 or underscore. The specified content is then
              associated with this identifier.

              Setting the same variable name again overwrites the old contents
              with the new.

              The contents of a variable can be referenced in a later command
              line option when that option name is prefixed with "--expand-",
              and the name is used as "{{name}}".

              --variable can import environment variables into the name space.
              Opt to either require the environment variable to be set or
              provide a default value for the variable in case it is not
              already set.

              --variable %name imports the variable called "name" but exits
              with an error if that environment variable is not already set.
              To provide a default value if the environment variable is not
              set, use --variable %name=content or --variable %name@content.
              Note that on some systems - but not all - environment variables
              are case insensitive.

              When expanding variables, curl supports a set of functions that
              can make the variable contents more convenient to use. You apply
              a function to a variable expansion by adding a colon and then
              list the desired functions in a comma-separated list that is
              evaluated in a left-to-right order. Variable content holding
              null bytes that are not encoded when expanded, causes an error.

              Available functions:

              trim   removes all leading and trailing white space.

              json   outputs the content using JSON string quoting rules.

              url    shows the content URL (percent) encoded.

              b64    expands the variable base64 encoded


              --variable can be used several times in a command line

              Example:
               curl --variable name=smith https://example.com

              See also -K, --config. Added in 8.3.0.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes curl verbose during the operation. Useful for debugging
              and seeing what's going on under the hood. A line starting with
              > means header data sent by curl, < means header data received
              by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting with
              * means additional info provided by curl.

              If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include or
              -D, --dump-header might be more suitable options.

              If you think this option still does not give you enough details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              Note that verbose output of curl activities and network traffic
              might contain sensitive data, including usernames, credentials
              or secret data content. Be aware and be careful when sharing
              trace logs with others.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of --next.

              Providing --verbose multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-verbose.

              Example:
               curl --verbose https://example.com

              See also -i, --include, -s, --silent, --trace and --trace-ascii.
              This option is mutually exclusive to --trace and --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Release-Date:") shows the release
              date.

              The third line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The fourth line (starts with "Features:") shows specific
              features libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              `alt-svc`
                     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is provided.

              `AsynchDNS`
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves. Asynchronous
                     name resolves can be done using either the c-ares or the
                     threaded resolver backends.

              `brotli`
                     Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

              `CharConv`
                     curl was built with support for character set conversions
                     (like EBCDIC)

              `Debug`
                     This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc. For
                     curl-developers only!

              `gsasl`
                     The built-in SASL authentication includes extensions to
                     support SCRAM because libcurl was built with libgsasl.

              `GSS-API`
                     GSS-API is supported.

              `HSTS` HSTS support is present.

              `HTTP2`
                     HTTP/2 support has been built-in.

              `HTTP3`
                     HTTP/3 support has been built-in.

              `HTTPS-proxy`
                     This curl is built to support HTTPS proxy.

              `IDN`  This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              `IPv6` You can use IPv6 with this.

              `Kerberos`
                     Kerberos V5 authentication is supported.

              `Largefile`
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.

              `libz` Automatic decompression (via gzip, deflate) of compressed
                     files over HTTP is supported.

              `MultiSSL`
                     This curl supports multiple TLS backends.

              `NTLM` NTLM authentication is supported.

              `NTLM_WB`
                     NTLM delegation to winbind helper is supported.

              `PSL`  PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means that this
                     curl has been built with knowledge about "public
                     suffixes".

              `SPNEGO`
                     SPNEGO authentication is supported.

              `SSL`  SSL versions of various protocols are supported, such as
                     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S and so on.

              `SSPI` SSPI is supported.

              `TLS-SRP`
                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported
                     for TLS.

              `TrackMemory`
                     Debug memory tracking is supported.

              `Unicode`
                     Unicode support on Windows.

              `UnixSockets`
                     Unix sockets support is provided.

              `zstd` Automatic decompression (via zstd) of compressed files
                     over HTTP is supported.


              Example:
               curl --version

              See also -h, --help and -M, --manual.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Make curl display information on stdout after a completed
              transfer. The format is a string that may contain plain text
              mixed with any number of variables.  The format can be specified
              as a literal "string", or you can have curl read the format from
              a file with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from
              stdin you write "@-".

              The variables present in the output format are substituted by
              the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below. All
              variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
              normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by
              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              The output is by default written to standard output, but can be
              changed with %{stderr} and %output{}.

              Output HTTP headers from the most recent request by using
              %header{name} where name is the case insensitive name of the
              header (without the trailing colon). The header contents are
              exactly as sent over the network, with leading and trailing
              whitespace trimmed (added in 7.84.0).

              Select a specific target destination file to write the output
              to, by using %output{name} (added in curl 8.3.0) where name is
              the full filename. The output following that instruction is then
              written to that file. More than one %output{} instruction can be
              specified in the same write-out argument. If the filename cannot
              be created, curl leaves the output destination to the one used
              prior to the %output{} instruction. Use %output{>>name} to
              append data to an existing file.

              This output is done independently of if the file transfer was
              successful or not.

              If the specified action or output specified with this option
              fails in any way, it does not make curl return a (different)
              error.

              NOTE: On Windows, the %-symbol is a special symbol used to
              expand environment variables. In batch files, all occurrences of
              % must be doubled when using this option to properly escape. If
              this option is used at the command prompt then the % cannot be
              escaped and unintended expansion is possible.

              The variables available are:

              `certs`
                     Output the certificate chain with details. Supported only
                     by the OpenSSL, GnuTLS, Schannel and Secure Transport
                     backends. (Added in 7.88.0)

              `content_type`
                     The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was
                     any.

              `errormsg`
                     The error message. (Added in 7.75.0)

              `exitcode`
                     The numerical exit code of the transfer. (Added in
                     7.75.0)

              `filename_effective`
                     The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is
                     only meaningful if curl is told to write to a file with
                     the -O, --remote-name or -o, --output option. It is most
                     useful in combination with the -J, --remote-header-name
                     option. (Added in 7.26.0)

              `ftp_entry_path`
                     The initial path curl ended up in when logging on to the
                     remote FTP server.

              `header_json`
                     A JSON object with all HTTP response headers from the
                     recent transfer. Values are provided as arrays, since in
                     the case of multiple headers there can be multiple
                     values. (Added in 7.83.0)

                     The header names provided in lowercase, listed in order
                     of appearance over the wire. Except for duplicated
                     headers. They are grouped on the first occurrence of that
                     header, each value is presented in the JSON array.

              `http_code`
                     The numerical response code that was found in the last
                     retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer.

              `http_connect`
                     The numerical code that was found in the last response
                     (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request.

              `http_version`
                     The http version that was effectively used. (Added in
                     7.50.0)

              `json` A JSON object with all available keys. (Added in 7.70.0)

              `local_ip`
                     The IP address of the local end of the most recently done
                     connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6.

              `local_port`
                     The local port number of the most recently done
                     connection.

              `method`
                     The http method used in the most recent HTTP request.
                     (Added in 7.72.0)

              `num_certs`
                     Number of server certificates received in the TLS
                     handshake. Supported only by the OpenSSL, GnuTLS,
                     Schannel and Secure Transport backends.  (Added in
                     7.88.0)

              `num_connects`
                     Number of new connects made in the recent transfer.

              `num_headers`
                     The number of response headers in the most recent request
                     (restarted at each redirect). Note that the status line
                     IS NOT a header. (Added in 7.73.0)

              `num_redirects`
                     Number of redirects that were followed in the request.

              `onerror`
                     The rest of the output is only shown if the transfer
                     returned a non-zero error.  (Added in 7.75.0)

              `proxy_ssl_verify_result`
                     The result of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certificate
                     verification that was requested. 0 means the verification
                     was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

              `proxy_used`
                     Returns 1 if the previous transfer used a proxy,
                     otherwise 0. Useful to for example determine if a
                     "NOPROXY" pattern matched the hostname or not. (Added in
                     8.7.0)

              `redirect_url`
                     When an HTTP request was made without -L, --location to
                     follow redirects (or when --max-redirs is met), this
                     variable shows the actual URL a redirect would have gone
                     to.

              `referer`
                     The Referer: header, if there was any. (Added in 7.76.0)

              `remote_ip`
                     The remote IP address of the most recently done
                     connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6.

              `remote_port`
                     The remote port number of the most recently done
                     connection.

              `response_code`
                     The numerical response code that was found in the last
                     transfer (formerly known as "http_code").

              `scheme`
                     The URL scheme (sometimes called protocol) that was
                     effectively used. (Added in 7.52.0)

              `size_download`
                     The total amount of bytes that were downloaded. This is
                     the size of the body/data that was transferred, excluding
                     headers.

              `size_header`
                     The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers.

              `size_request`
                     The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP
                     request.

              `size_upload`
                     The total amount of bytes that were uploaded. This is the
                     size of the body/data that was transferred, excluding
                     headers.

              `speed_download`
                     The average download speed that curl measured for the
                     complete download. Bytes per second.

              `speed_upload`
                     The average upload speed that curl measured for the
                     complete upload. Bytes per second.

              `ssl_verify_result`
                     The result of the SSL peer certificate verification that
                     was requested. 0 means the verification was successful.

              `stderr`
                     From this point on, the -w, --write-out output is written
                     to standard error. (Added in 7.63.0)

              `stdout`
                     From this point on, the -w, --write-out output is written
                     to standard output.  This is the default, but can be used
                     to switch back after switching to stderr.  (Added in
                     7.63.0)

              `time_appconnect`
                     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the
                     SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote host was
                     completed.

              `time_connect`
                     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the
                     TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was completed.

              `time_namelookup`
                     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the
                     name resolving was completed.

              `time_pretransfer`
                     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the
                     file transfer was just about to begin. This includes all
                     pre-transfer commands and negotiations that are specific
                     to the particular protocol(s) involved.

              `time_redirect`
                     The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps
                     including name lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer
                     before the final transaction was started. "time_redirect"
                     shows the complete execution time for multiple
                     redirections.

              `time_starttransfer`
                     The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the
                     first byte is received.  This includes time_pretransfer
                     and also the time the server needed to calculate the
                     result.

              `time_total`
                     The total time, in seconds, that the full operation
                     lasted.

              `url`  The URL that was fetched. (Added in 7.75.0)

              `url.scheme`
                     The scheme part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.user`
                     The user part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.password`
                     The password part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.options`
                     The options part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.host`
                     The host part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.port`
                     The port number of the URL that was fetched. If no port
                     number was specified and the URL scheme is known, that
                     scheme's default port number is shown. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `url.path`
                     The path part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.query`
                     The query part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.fragment`
                     The fragment part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `url.zoneid`
                     The zone id part of the URL that was fetched. (Added in
                     8.1.0)

              `urle.scheme`
                     The scheme part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.user`
                     The user part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.password`
                     The password part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.options`
                     The options part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.host`
                     The host part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.port`
                     The port number of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. If no port number was specified, but the URL
                     scheme is known, that scheme's default port number is
                     shown. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.path`
                     The path part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.query`
                     The query part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.fragment`
                     The fragment part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urle.zoneid`
                     The zone id part of the effective (last) URL that was
                     fetched. (Added in 8.1.0)

              `urlnum`
                     The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed.
                     Unglobbed URLs share the same index number as the origin
                     globbed URL. (Added in 7.75.0)

              `url_effective`
                     The URL that was fetched last. This is most meaningful if
                     you have told curl to follow location: headers.


              If --write-out is provided several times, the last set value is
              used.

              Example:
               curl -w '%{response_code}\n' https://example.com

              See also -v, --verbose and -I, --head.

       --xattr
              When saving output to a file, tell curl to store file metadata
              in extended file attributes. Currently, the URL is stored in the
              "xdg.origin.url" attribute and, for HTTP, the content type is
              stored in the "mime_type" attribute. If the file system does not
              support extended attributes, a warning is issued.

              Providing --xattr multiple times has no extra effect.  Disable
              it again with --no-xattr.

              Example:
               curl --xattr -o storage https://example.com

              See also -R, --remote-time, -w, --write-out and -v, --verbose.


FILES

       ~/.curlrc

       Default config file, see -K, --config for details.


ENVIRONMENT

       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. "http_proxy" is an exception as
       it is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same effect as
       using the -x, --proxy option.

       `http_proxy` [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       `HTTPS_PROXY` [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       `[url-protocol]_PROXY` [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the
              protocol is a protocol that curl supports and as specified in a
              URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP, etc.

       `ALL_PROXY` [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
              set.

       `NO_PROXY` <comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
              list of hostnames that should not go through any proxy. If set
              to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
              list is matched as either a domain name which contains the
              hostname, or the hostname itself.

              This environment variable disables use of the proxy even when
              specified with the -x, --proxy option. That is

              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com curl -x http://proxy.example.com
              http://direct.example.com

              accesses the target URL directly, and

              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com curl -x http://proxy.example.com
              http://somewhere.example.com

              accesses the target URL through the proxy.

              The list of hostnames can also be include numerical IP
              addresses, and IPv6 versions should then be given without
              enclosing brackets.

              IP addresses can be specified using CIDR notation: an appended
              slash and number specifies the number of "network bits" out of
              the address to use in the comparison (added in 7.86.0). For
              example "192.168.0.0/16" would match all addresses starting with
              "192.168".

       `APPDATA` <dir>
              On Windows, this variable is used when trying to find the home
              directory. If the primary home variable are all unset.

       `COLUMNS` <terminal width>
              If set, the specified number of characters is used as the
              terminal width when the alternative progress-bar is shown. If
              not set, curl tries to figure it out using other ways.

       `CURL_CA_BUNDLE` <file>
              If set, it is used as the --cacert value. This environment
              variable is ignored if Schannel is used as the TLS backend.

       `CURL_HOME` <dir>
              If set, is the first variable curl checks when trying to find
              its home directory. If not set, it continues to check
              XDG_CONFIG_HOME

       `CURL_SSL_BACKEND` <TLS backend>
              If curl was built with support for "MultiSSL", meaning that it
              has built-in support for more than one TLS backend, this
              environment variable can be set to the case insensitive name of
              the particular backend to use when curl is invoked. Setting a
              name that is not a built-in alternative makes curl stay with the
              default.

              SSL backend names (case-insensitive): bearssl, gnutls, mbedtls,
              openssl, rustls, schannel, secure-transport, wolfssl

       `HOME` <dir>
              If set, this is used to find the home directory when that is
              needed. Like when looking for the default .curlrc. CURL_HOME and
              XDG_CONFIG_HOME have preference.

       `QLOGDIR` <directory name>
              If curl was built with HTTP/3 support, setting this environment
              variable to a local directory makes curl produce qlogs in that
              directory, using file names named after the destination
              connection id (in hex). Do note that these files can become
              rather large. Works with the ngtcp2 and quiche QUIC backends.

       `SHELL`
              Used on VMS when trying to detect if using a DCL or a unix
              shell.

       `SSL_CERT_DIR` <dir>
              If set, it is used as the --capath value. This environment
              variable is ignored if Schannel is used as the TLS backend.

       `SSL_CERT_FILE` <path>
              If set, it is used as the --cacert value. This environment
              variable is ignored if Schannel is used as the TLS backend.

       `SSLKEYLOGFILE` <filename>
              If you set this environment variable to a filename, curl stores
              TLS secrets from its connections in that file when invoked to
              enable you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using network
              analyzing tools such as Wireshark. This works with the following
              TLS backends: OpenSSL, libressl, BoringSSL, GnuTLS and wolfSSL.

       `USERPROFILE` <dir>
              On Windows, this variable is used when trying to find the home
              directory. If the other, primary, variable are all unset. If
              set, curl uses the path "$USERPROFILE\Application Data".

       `XDG_CONFIG_HOME` <dir>
              If CURL_HOME is not set, this variable is checked when looking
              for a default .curlrc file.


PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES

       The proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify
       alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string does
       not match a supported one, the proxy is treated as an HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
              Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy. The default if no scheme
              prefix is used.

       https://
              Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname


EXIT CODES

       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear under error conditions. At the time of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       0      Success. The operation completed successfully according to the
              instructions.

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired
              request was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at
              build-time. To make curl able to do this, you probably need
              another build of libcurl.

       5      Could not resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be
              resolved.

       6      Could not resolve host. The given remote host could not be
              resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl could not parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied access to
              the particular resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
              often you tried to change to a directory that does not exist on
              the server.

       10     FTP accept failed. While waiting for the server to connect back
              when an active FTP session is used, an error code was sent over
              the control connection or similar.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl could not parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       12     During an active FTP session while waiting for the server to
              connect back to curl, the timeout expired.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl could not parse the reply sent to the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl could not parse the 227-line the
              server sent.

       15     FTP cannot use host. Could not resolve the host IP we got in the
              227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2 framing layer.
              This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
              see the error message for details.

       17     FTP could not set binary. Could not change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP could not download/access the given file, the RETR (or
              similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested URL was not found or
              returned another error with the HTTP error code being 400 or
              above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl could not write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

       25     Failed starting the upload. For FTP, the server typically denied
              the STOR command.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached
              according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
              support the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV
              instead.

       31     FTP could not use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" did not work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Could not continue an earlier aborted
              download.

       37     FILE could not read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the
              operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be
              used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the
              maximum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl. This indicates that you
              passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       52     The server did not reply anything, which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Could not use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA
              certificates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialize SSL Engine.

       67     The username, password, or similar was not accepted and curl
              failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       77     Problem reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format.

       83     Issuer check failed.

       84     The FTP PRET command failed.

       85     Mismatch of RTSP CSeq numbers.

       86     Mismatch of RTSP Session Identifiers.

       87     Unable to parse FTP file list.

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error.

       89     No connection available, the session is queued.

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key.

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication function returned an error.

       95     A problem was detected in the HTTP/3 layer. This is somewhat
              generic and can be one out of several problems, see the error
              message for details.

       96     QUIC connection error. This error may be caused by an SSL
              library error. QUIC is the protocol used for HTTP/3 transfers.

       97     Proxy handshake error.

       98     A client-side certificate is required to complete the TLS
              handshake.

       99     Poll or select returned fatal error.

       100    A value or data field grew larger than allowed.

       XX     More error codes might appear here in future releases. The
              existing ones are meant to never change.


BUGS

       If you experience any problems with curl, submit an issue in the
       project's bug tracker on GitHub: https://github.com/curl/curl/issues


AUTHORS

       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.


WWW

       https://curl.se


SEE ALSO

       ftp (1), wget (1)

curl 8.7.1                       March 28 2024                         curl(1)

curl 8.7.1 - Generated Thu Mar 28 14:19:29 CDT 2024
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