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ftp(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   ftp(1)


     ftp -- Internet file transfer program


     ftp [-46AadefginpRtvV] [-N netrc] [-o output] [-P port] [-q quittime]
         [-s srcaddr] [-r retry] [-T dir,max[,inc]] [[user@]host [port]]
         [[user@]host:[path][/]] [file:///path]
         [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
     ftp -u URL file [...]


     ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Proto-
     col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote
     network site.

     The last five arguments will fetch a file using the FTP or HTTP proto-
     cols, or by direct copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal
     for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING FILES below for more information.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter-

     -4          Forces ftp to only use IPv4 addresses.

     -6          Forces ftp to only use IPv6 addresses.

     -A          Force active mode ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use pas-
                 sive mode ftp and fall back to active mode if passive is not
                 supported by the server.  This option causes ftp to always
                 use an active connection.  It is only useful for connecting
                 to very old servers that do not implement passive mode prop-

     -a          Causes ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an
                 anonymous login instead.

     -d          Enables debugging.

     -e          Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs
                 ange-ftp mode.

     -f          Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the FTP
                 or HTTP proxies.

     -g          Disables file name globbing.

     -i          Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file trans-

     -n          Restrains ftp from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial
                 connection for non auto-fetch transfers.  If auto-login is
                 enabled, ftp will check the .netrc (see below) file in the
                 user's home directory for an entry describing an account on
                 the remote machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will prompt for
                 the remote machine login name (default is the user identity
                 on the local machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a pass-
                 word and an account with which to login.  To override the
                 auto-login for auto-fetch transfers, specify the username
                 (and optionally, password) as appropriate.

     -N netrc    Use netrc instead of ~/.netrc.  Refer to THE .netrc FILE for
                 more information.

     -o output   When auto-fetching files, save the contents in output.
                 output is parsed according to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
                 below.  If output is not `-' or doesn't start with `|', then
                 only the first file specified will be retrieved into output;
                 all other files will be retrieved into the basename of their
                 remote name.

     -p          Enable passive mode operation for use behind connection fil-
                 tering firewalls.  This option has been deprecated as ftp now
                 tries to use passive mode by default, falling back to active
                 mode if the server does not support passive connections.

     -P port     Sets the port number to port.

     -q quittime
                 Quit if the connection has stalled for quittime seconds.

     -r wait     Retry the connection attempt if it failed, pausing for wait

     -R          Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.

     -s srcaddr  Uses srcaddr as the local IP address for all connections.

     -t          Enables packet tracing.

     -T direction,maximum[,increment]
                 Set the maximum transfer rate for direction to maximum
                 bytes/second, and if specified, the increment to increment
                 bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more information.

     -u URL file [...]
                 Upload files on the command line to URL where URL is one of
                 the ftp URL types as supported by auto-fetch (with an
                 optional target filename for single file uploads), and file
                 is one or more local files to be uploaded.

     -v          Enable verbose and progress.  This is the default if output
                 is to a terminal (and in the case of progress, ftp is the
                 foreground process).  Forces ftp to show all responses from
                 the remote server, as well as report on data transfer statis-

     -V          Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of
                 enabled when output is to a terminal.

     The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
     command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
     a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its
     command interpreter and await instructions from the user.  When ftp is
     awaiting commands from the user the prompt `ftp>' is provided to the
     user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command [args]]
                 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there
                 are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
                 directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
                 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
                 command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
                 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system
                 for access to resources once a login has been successfully
                 completed.  If no argument is included, the user will be
                 prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
                 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If
                 remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used
                 in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
                 or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                 type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
                 default type.

     bell        Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer com-
                 mand is completed.

     binary      Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye         Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit
                 ftp.  An end of file will also terminate the session and

     case        Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during get,
                 mget and mput commands.  When case is on (default is off),
                 remote computer file names with all letters in upper case are
                 written in the local directory with the letters mapped to
                 lower case.

     cd remote-directory
                 Change the working directory on the remote machine to

     cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
                 the current remote machine working directory.

     chmod mode remote-file
                 Change the permission modes of the file remote-file on the
                 remote system to mode.

     close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return
                 to the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file
                 retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
                 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
                 default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
                 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
                 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line-
                 feeds; when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
                 may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is

     ftp_debug [ftp_debug-value]
                 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional ftp_debug-value is
                 specified it is used to set the debugging level.  When debug-
                 ging is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote
                 machine, preceded by the string `-->'

     delete remote-file
                 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

     dir [remote-path [local-file]]
                 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
                 machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent informa-
                 tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
                 UNIX systems will produce output from the command `ls -l'.
                 If remote-path is left unspecified, the current working
                 directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will
                 prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
                 the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no local
                 file is specified, or if local-file is `-', the output is
                 sent to the terminal.

     disconnect  A synonym for close.

     edit        Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command
                 and file completion.  This is automatically enabled if input
                 is from a terminal, and disabled otherwise.

     epsv4       Toggle the use of the extended EPSV and EPRT commands on IPv4
                 connections; first try EPSV / EPRT, and then PASV / PORT.
                 This is enabled by default.  If an extended command fails
                 then this option will be temporarily disabled for the dura-
                 tion of the current connection, or until epsv4 is executed

     exit        A synonym for bye.

     features    Display what features the remote server supports (using the
                 FEAT command).

     fget localfile
                 Retrieve the files listed in localfile, which has one line
                 per filename.

     form format
                 Set the file transfer form to format.  The default (and only
                 supported) format is ``non-print''.

     ftp host [port]
                 A synonym for open.

     gate [host [port]]
                 Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS
                 FWTK and Gauntlet ftp proxies.  This will not be permitted if
                 the gate-ftp server hasn't been set (either explicitly by the
                 user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If host
                 is given, then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-
                 ftp server will be set to host.  If port is also given, that
                 will be used as the port to connect to on the gate-ftp

     get remote-file [local-file]
                 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
                 If the local file name is not specified, it is given the same
                 name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by
                 the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current
                 settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
                 transferring the file.

     glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget, mput, and
                 mreget.  If globbing is turned off with glob, the file name
                 arguments are taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for
                 mput is done as in csh(1).  For mdelete, mget, and mreget,
                 each remote file name is expanded separately on the remote
                 machine and the lists are not merged.  Expansion of a direc-
                 tory name is likely to be different from expansion of the
                 name of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the
                 foreign operating system and ftp server, and can be previewed
                 by doing `mls remote-files -' Note: mget, mput and mreget are
                 not meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of files.
                 That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the sub-
                 tree (in binary mode).

     hash [size]
                 Toggle hash-sign (`#') printing for each data block trans-
                 ferred.  The size of a data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
                 This can be changed by specifying size in bytes.  Enabling
                 hash disables progress.

     help [command]
                 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.
                 If no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known com-

     idle [seconds]
                 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds sec-
                 onds.  If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is

     image       A synonym for binary.

     lcd [directory]
                 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no
                 directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

     less file   A synonym for page.

     lpage local-file
                 Display local-file with the program specified by the set
                 pager option.

     lpwd        Print the working directory on the local machine.

     ls [remote-path [local-file]]
                 A synonym for dir.

     macdef macro-name
                 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
                 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
                 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
                 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total
                 characters in all defined macros.  Macro names can be a maxi-
                 mum of 8 characters.  Macros are only applicable to the cur-
                 rent session they are defined within (or if defined outside a
                 session, to the session invoked with the next open command),
                 and remain defined until a close command is executed.  To
                 invoke a macro, use the $ command (see above).

                 The macro processor interprets `$' and `\' as special charac-
                 ters.  A `$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by
                 the corresponding argument on the macro invocation command
                 line.  A `$' followed by an `i' signals the macro processor
                 that the executing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass
                 ``$i'' is replaced by the first argument on the macro invoca-
                 tion command line, on the second pass it is replaced by the
                 second argument, and so on.  A `\' followed by any character
                 is replaced by that character.  Use the `\' to prevent spe-
                 cial treatment of the `$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
                 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
                 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If
                 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver-
                 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
                 for receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
                 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get
                 for each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on
                 the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
                 processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
                 Files are transferred into the local working directory, which
                 can be changed with `lcd directory'; new local directories
                 can be created with `! mkdir directory'.

     mkdir directory-name
                 Make a directory on the remote machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
                 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
                 the local-file must be specified.  If interactive prompting
                 is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argu-
                 ment is indeed the target local file for receiving mls out-

     mlsd [remote-path]
                 Display the contents of remote-path (which should default to
                 the current directory if not given) in a machine-parsable
                 form, using MLSD.  The format of display can be changed with
                 `remopts mlst ...'.

     mlst [remote-path]
                 Display the details about remote-path (which should default
                 to the current directory if not given) in a machine-parsable
                 form, using MLST.  The format of display can be changed with
                 `remopts mlst ...'.

     mode mode-name
                 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default (and
                 only supported) mode is ``stream''.

     modtime remote-file
                 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote
                 machine, in RFC2822 format.

     more file   A synonym for page.

     mput local-files
                 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as argu-
                 ments and do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See
                 glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
                 will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.

     mreget remote-files
                 As per mget, but performs a reget instead of get.

     msend local-files
                 A synonym for mput.

     newer remote-file [local-file]
                 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
                 is more recent that the file on the current system.  If the
                 file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
                 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to

     nlist [remote-path [local-file]]
                 A synonym for ls.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
                 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
                 are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
                 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
                 mput commands and put commands issued without a specified
                 remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
                 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
                 issued without a specified local target filename.  This com-
                 mand is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer
                 with different file naming conventions or practices.  The
                 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
                 [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
                 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
                 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
                 the sequences ``$1'', ``$2'', ...  ``$9'' in inpattern.  Use
                 `\' to prevent this special treatment of the `$' character.
                 All other characters are treated literally, and are used to
                 determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example,
                 given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "",
                 $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value
                 "data".  The outpattern determines the resulting mapped file-
                 name.  The sequences ``$1'', ``$2'', ...  ``$9'' are replaced
                 by any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The
                 sequence ``$0'' is replaced by the original filename.  Addi-
                 tionally, the sequence ``[seq1, seq2]'' is replaced by [seq1]
                 if seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by
                 seq2.  For example, the command

                       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

                 would yield the output filename "" for input file-
                 names "" and "", "myfile.file" for
                 the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the
                 input filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
                 outpattern, as in the example:
                       nmap $1 sed s/  *$// > $1
                 Use the `\' character to prevent special treatment of the
                 `$', `[', `]', and `,' characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
                 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
                 If no arguments are specified, the filename character trans-
                 lation mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, char-
                 acters in remote filenames are translated during mput com-
                 mands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar-
                 get filename.  If arguments are specified, characters in
                 local filenames are translated during mget commands and get
                 commands issued without a specified local target filename.
                 This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
                 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
                 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
                 replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.  If
                 the character's position in inchars is longer than the length
                 of outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.

     open host [port]
                 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An
                 optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
                 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.  If the set
                 auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
                 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     page file   Retrieve file and display with the program specified by the
                 set pager option.

     passive [auto]
                 Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is
                 given, act as if FTPMODE is set to `auto'.  If passive mode
                 is turned on (default), ftp will send a PASV command for all
                 data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV command
                 requests that the remote server open a port for the data con-
                 nection and return the address of that port.  The remote
                 server listens on that port and the client connects to it.
                 When using the more traditional PORT command, the client lis-
                 tens on a port and sends that address to the remote server,
                 who connects back to it.  Passive mode is useful when using
                 ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the direc-
                 tionality of traffic.  (Note that though FTP servers are
                 required to support the PASV command by RFC1123, some do

     pdir [remote-path]
                 Perform dir [remote-path], and display the result with the
                 program specified by the set pager option.

     pls [remote-path]
                 Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the
                 program specified by the set pager option.

     pmlsd [remote-path]
                 Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the
                 program specified by the set pager option.

     preserve    Toggle preservation of modification times on retrieved files.

     progress    Toggle display of transfer progress bar.  The progress bar
                 will be disabled for a transfer that has local-file as `-' or
                 a command that starts with `|'.  Refer to FILE NAMING
                 CONVENTIONS for more information.  Enabling progress disables

     prompt      Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs
                 during multiple file transfers to allow the user to selec-
                 tively retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off
                 (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files,
                 and any mdelete will delete all files.

                 When prompting is on, the following commands are available at
                 a prompt:

                       a   Answer `yes' to the current file, and automatically
                           answer `yes' to any remaining files for the current

                       n   Answer `no', and do not transfer the file.

                       p   Answer `yes' to the current file, and turn off
                           prompt mode (as is ``prompt off'' had been given).

                       q   Terminate the current operation.

                       y   Answer `yes', and transfer the file.

                       ?   Display a help message.

                 Any other response will answer `yes' to the current file.

     proxy ftp-command
                 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
                 This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote FTP
                 servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The
                 first proxy command should be an open, to establish the sec-
                 ondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
                 see other FTP commands executable on the secondary connec-
                 tion.  The following commands behave differently when pref-
                 aced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
                 auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro defi-
                 nitions, get and mget transfer files from the host on the
                 primary control connection to the host on the secondary con-
                 trol connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
                 from the host on the secondary control connection to the host
                 on the primary control connection.  Third party file trans-
                 fers depend upon support of the FTP protocol PASV command by
                 the server on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
                 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
                 left unspecified, the local file name is used after process-
                 ing according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the
                 remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                 type, format, mode, and structure.

     pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote

     quit        A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP

     rate direction [maximum [increment]]
                 Throttle the maximum transfer rate to maximum bytes/second.
                 If maximum is 0, disable the throttle.

                 direction may be one of:
                       all  Both directions.
                       get  Incoming transfers.
                       put  Outgoing transfers.

                 maximum can be modified on the fly by increment bytes
                 (default: 1024) each time a given signal is received:

                       SIGUSR1  Increment maximum by increment bytes.

                       SIGUSR2  Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The
                                result must be a positive number.

                 If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates are

                 Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.

     rcvbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
                 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
                 reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
                 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a par-
                 tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
                 continued from the apparent point of failure.  This command
                 is useful when transferring very large files over networks
                 that are prone to dropping connections.

     remopts command [command-options]
                 Set options on the remote FTP server for command to
                 command-options (whose absence is handled on a command-spe-
                 cific basis).  Remote FTP commands known to support options
                 include: `MLST' (used for MLSD and MLST).

     rename [from [to]]
                 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

     reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes com-
                 mand/reply sequencing with the remote FTP server.  Resynchro-
                 nization may be necessary following a violation of the FTP
                 protocol by the remote server.

     restart marker
                 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
                 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
                 into the file.

     rhelp [command-name]
                 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name
                 is specified it is supplied to the server as well.

     rmdir directory-name
                 Delete a directory on the remote machine.

     rstatus [remote-file]
                 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If
                 remote-file is specified, show status of remote-file on
                 remote machine.

     runique     Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique file-
                 names.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the
                 target local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
                 appended to the name.  If the resulting name matches another
                 existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
                 this process continues up to ".99", an error message is
                 printed, and the transfer does not take place.  The generated
                 unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
                 affect local files generated from a shell command (see
                 below).  The default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
                 A synonym for put.

     sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will
                 attempt to use a PORT command when establishing a connection
                 for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
                 delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
                 command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the
                 use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
                 use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
                 certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
                 but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     set [option value]
                 Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, dis-
                 play all of the options and their values.  The currently sup-
                 ported options are:

                       anonpass    Defaults to $FTPANONPASS

                       ftp_proxy   Defaults to $ftp_proxy.

                       http_proxy  Defaults to $http_proxy.

                       no_proxy    Defaults to $no_proxy.

                       pager       Defaults to $PAGER.

                       prompt      Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.

                       rprompt     Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
                 server as a SITE command.

     size remote-file
                 Return size of remote-file on remote machine.

     sndbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket send buffer to size.

     status      Show the current status of ftp.

     struct struct-name
                 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  The default
                 (and only supported) structure is ``file''.

     sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
                 names.  The remote FTP server must support FTP protocol STOU
                 command for successful completion.  The remote server will
                 report unique name.  Default value is off.

     system      Show the type of operating system running on the remote

     tenex       Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX

     throttle    A synonym for rate.

     trace       Toggle packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
                 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec-
                 ified, the current type is printed.  The default type is net-
                 work ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
                 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If
                 newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

     unset option
                 Unset option.  Refer to set for more information.

     usage command
                 Print the usage message for command.

     user user-name [password [account]]
                 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
                 is not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
                 the user for it (after disabling local echo).  If an account
                 field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
                 user will be prompted for it.  If an account field is speci-
                 fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote server
                 after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
                 did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked
                 with ``auto-login'' disabled, this process is done automati-
                 cally on initial connection to the FTP server.

     verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the
                 FTP server are displayed to the user.  In addition, if ver-
                 bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
                 regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By
                 default, verbose is on.

     xferbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to size.

     ? [command]
                 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"'

     Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit on or off argument to
     force the setting appropriately.

     Commands which take a byte count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate, and
     xferbuf) support an optional suffix on the argument which changes the
     interpretation of the argument.  Supported suffixes are:
           b    Causes no modification.  (Optional)
           k    Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
           m    Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
           g    Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824

     If ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the ``status'' argument of stty(1)) or
     SIGQUIT signal whilst a transfer is in progress, the current transfer
     rate statistics will be written to the standard error output, in the same
     format as the standard completion message.


     In addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-
     fetch feature.  To enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list of host-
     names/files on the command line.

     The following formats are valid syntax for an auto-fetch element:

           ``Classic'' FTP format.

           If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see
           glob), then the equivalent of `mget path' is performed.

           If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters,
           it is stored locally with the name basename (see basename(1)) of
           path, in the current directory.  Otherwise, the full remote name is
           used as the local name, relative to the local root directory.

           An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol if set ftp_proxy isn't
           defined.  Otherwise, transfer the URL using HTTP via the proxy
           defined in set ftp_proxy.  If set ftp_proxy isn't defined and user
           is given, login as user.  In this case, use password if supplied,
           otherwise prompt the user for one.

           If a suffix of `;type=A' or `;type=I' is supplied, then the trans-
           fer type will take place as ascii or binary (respectively).  The
           default transfer type is binary.

           In order to be compliant with RFC3986, ftp interprets the path part
           of an ``ftp://'' auto-fetch URL as follows:

           o   The `/' immediately after the host[:port] is interpreted as a
               separator before the path, and not as part of the path itself.

           o   The path is interpreted as a `/'-separated list of name compo-
               nents.  For all but the last such component, ftp performs the
               equivalent of a cd command.  For the last path component, ftp
               performs the equivalent of a get command.

           o   Empty name components, which result from `//' within the path,
               or from an extra `/' at the beginning of the path, will cause
               the equivalent of a cd command without a directory name.  This
               is unlikely to be useful.

           o   Any `%XX' codes (per RFC3986) within the path components are
               decoded, with XX representing a character code in hexadecimal.
               This decoding takes place after the path has been split into
               components, but before each component is used in the equivalent
               of a cd or get command.  Some often-used codes are `%2F' (which
               represents `/') and `%7E' (which represents `~').

           The above interpretation has the following consequences:

           o   The path is interpreted relative to the default login directory
               of the specified user or of the `anonymous' user.  If the /
               directory is required, use a leading path of ``%2F''.  If a
               user's home directory is required (and the remote server sup-
               ports the syntax), use a leading path of ``%7Euser/''.  For
               example, to retrieve /etc/motd from `localhost' as the user
               `myname' with the password `mypass', use

           o   The exact cd and get commands can be controlled by careful
               choice of where to use `/' and where to use `%2F' (or `%2f').
               For example, the following URLs correspond to the equivalents
               of the indicated commands:

               ftp://host/dir1/dir2/file         ``cd dir1'', ``cd dir2'',
                                                 ``get file''.

               ftp://host/%2Fdir1/dir2/file      ``cd /dir1'', ``cd dir2'',
                                                 ``get file''.

               ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2/file       ``cd dir1/dir2'', ``get

               ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2/file    ``cd /dir1/dir2'', ``get

               ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile     ``get dir1/dir2/file''.

               ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile  ``get /dir1/dir2/file''.

           o   You must have appropriate access permission for each of the
               intermediate directories that is used in the equivalent of a cd

           An HTTP URL, retrieved using the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy
           is defined, it is used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If HTTP
           authorization is required to retrieve path, and `user' (and option-
           ally `password') is in the URL, use them for the first attempt to

           A local URL, copied from /path on the local host.

           Display information regarding topic; no file is retrieved for this
           auto-fetched element.  Supported values include:

           about:ftp      Information about ftp.

           about:version  The version of ftp.  Useful to provide when report-
                          ing problems.

     Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not given, the file is
     stored in the current directory as the basename(1) of path.  Note that if
     a HTTP redirect is received, the fetch is retried using the new target
     URL supplied by the server, with a corresponding new path.  Using an
     explicit -o output is recommended, to avoid writing to unexpected file

     If a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing `/' or an empty
     path component, then ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory
     given as the path, and leave the user in interactive mode ready for fur-
     ther input.  This will not work if set ftp_proxy is being used.

     Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use
     HTTP 1.0.

     If -R is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via the FTP or HTTP prox-
     ies will be restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget
     instead of get.  For HTTP, this is implemented by using the `Range:
     bytes=' HTTP/1.1 directive.

     If WWW or proxy WWW authentication is required, you will be prompted to
     enter a username and password to authenticate with.

     When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to surround the
     address in square brackets.  E.g.: ``ftp://[::1]:21/''.  This is because
     colons are used in IPv6 numeric address as well as being the separator
     for the port number.


     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
     C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
     will be halted by sending an FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
     server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed at which
     this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
     processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, the
     prompt will not appear until the remote server has completed sending the
     requested file.

     If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a
     reply from the remote server for the ABOR processing, then the connection
     will be closed.  This is different from the traditional behaviour (which
     ignores the terminal interrupt during this phase), but is considered more


     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
     the following rules.

     1.   If the file name `-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout
          (for writing) is used.

     2.   If the first character of the file name is `|', the remainder of the
          argument is interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then forks a shell,
          using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from
          the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu-
          ment must be quoted; e.g.  ``"| ls -lt"''.  A particularly useful
          example of this mechanism is: ``dir "" |more''.

     3.   Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file
          names are expanded according to the rules used in the csh(1); see
          the glob command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file
          (e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the "globbing"
          operation is used.

     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file
          names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be
          altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename
          may then be altered if runique is on.

     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
          names, the remote filename is the local filename, which may be
          altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may
          then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.


     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
     transfer.  The type may be one of ``ascii'', ``image'' (binary),
     ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).
     ftp supports the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte
     size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer
     parameters: mode, form, and struct.

THE .netrc FILE

     The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the
     auto-login process.  It resides in the user's home directory, unless
     overridden with the -N netrc option, or specified in the NETRC environ-
     ment variable.  The following tokens are recognized; they may be sepa-
     rated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:

     machine name
               Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process
               searches the .netrc file for a machine token that matches the
               remote machine specified on the ftp command line or as an open
               command argument.  Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc
               tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached
               or another machine or a default token is encountered.

     default   This is the same as machine name except that default matches
               any name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be
               after all machine tokens.  This is normally used as:

                     default login anonymous password user@site

               thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login to
               machines not specified in .netrc.  This can be overridden by
               using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

     login name
               Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token is
               present, the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
               specified name.

     password string
               Supply a password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
               process will supply the specified string if the remote server
               requires a password as part of the login process.  Note that if
               this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
               than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the
               .netrc is readable by anyone besides the user.

     account string
               Supply an additional account password.  If this token is
               present, the auto-login process will supply the specified
               string if the remote server requires an additional account
               password, or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT com-
               mand if it does not.

     macdef name
               Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp macdef com-
               mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name;
               its contents begin with the next .netrc line and continue until
               a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.
               Like the other tokens in the .netrc file, a macdef is applica-
               ble only to the machine definition preceding it.  A macdef
               entry cannot be utilized by multiple machine definitions;
               rather, it must be defined following each machine it is
               intended to be used with.  If a macro named init is defined, it
               is automatically executed as the last step in the auto-login
               process.  For example,

                     macdef init
                     epsv4 off

               followed by a blank line.


     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via the editline(3)
     library.  It is enabled with the edit command, and is enabled by default
     if input is from a tty.  Previous lines can be recalled and edited with
     the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be used as

     The editline(3) library is configured with a .editrc file - refer to
     editrc(5) for more information.

     An extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive
     command and filename completion (including remote file completion).  To
     use this, bind a key to the editline(3) command ftp-complete.  By
     default, this is bound to the TAB key.


     By default, ftp displays a command line prompt of ``ftp> '' to the user.
     This can be changed with the set prompt command.

     A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the screen (after the com-
     mand input) with the set rprompt command.

     The following formatting sequences are replaced by the given information:

           %/   The current remote working directory.

                The trailing component of the current remote working direc-
                tory, or n trailing components if a digit n is given.  If n
                begins with `0', the number of skipped components precede the
                trailing component(s) in the format ``/<number>trailing'' (for
                `%c') or ``...trailing'' (for `%.').

           %M   The remote host name.

           %m   The remote host name, up to the first `.'.

           %n   The remote user name.

           %%   A single `%'.


     ftp uses the following environment variables.

     FTPANONPASS    Password to send in an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults
                    to ```whoami`@''.

     FTPMODE        Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:

                    active   active mode FTP only

                    auto     automatic determination of passive or active
                             (this is the default)

                    gate     gate-ftp mode

                    passive  passive mode FTP only

     FTPPROMPT      Command-line prompt to use.  Defaults to ``ftp> ''.  Refer
                    to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPRPROMPT     Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to ``''.
                    Refer to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPSERVER      Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.

     FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when gate
                    is enabled.  Default is port returned by a getservbyname()
                    lookup of ``ftpgate/tcp''.

     FTPUSERAGENT   The value to send for the HTTP User-Agent header.

     HOME           For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     NETRC          An alternate location of the .netrc file.

     PAGER          Used by various commands to display files.  Defaults to
                    more(1) if empty or not set.

     SHELL          For default shell.

     ftp_proxy      URL of FTP proxy to use when making FTP URL requests (if
                    not defined, use the standard FTP protocol).

                    See http_proxy for further notes about proxy use.

     http_proxy     URL of HTTP proxy to use when making HTTP URL requests.
                    If proxy authentication is required and there is a user-
                    name and password in this URL, they will automatically be
                    used in the first attempt to authenticate to the proxy.

                    If ``unsafe'' URL characters are required in the username
                    or password (for example `@' or `/'), encode them with
                    RFC3986 `%XX' encoding.

                    Note that the use of a username and password in ftp_proxy
                    and http_proxy may be incompatible with other programs
                    that use it (such as lynx(1)).

                    NOTE: this is not used for interactive sessions, only for
                    command-line fetches.

     no_proxy       A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for
                    which proxying is not to be used.  Each entry may have an
                    optional trailing ":port", which restricts the matching to
                    connections to that port.


     Some firewall configurations do not allow ftp to use extended passive
     mode.  If you find that even a simple ls appears to hang after printing a
     message such as this:

           229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||58551|)

     then you will need to disable extended passive mode with epsv4 off.  See
     the above section The .netrc File for an example of how to make this


     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)


     ftp attempts to be compliant with:

           RFC0959   File Transfer Protocol

           RFC1123   Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support

           RFC1635   How to Use Anonymous FTP

           RFC2389   Feature negotiation mechanism for the File Transfer

           RFC2428   FTP Extensions for IPv6 and NATs

           RFC2616   Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1

           RFC2822   Internet Message Format

           RFC3659   Extensions to FTP

           RFC3986   Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)


     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command
     and file completion, dynamic progress bar, automatic fetching of files
     and URLs, modification time preservation, transfer rate throttling, con-
     figurable command line prompt, and other enhancements over the standard
     BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD 1.3 and later releases by Luke Mewburn

     IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present
     in all non-NetBSD versions of this program, depending if the operating
     system supports IPv6 in a similar manner to KAME).


     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
     remote server.

     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
     transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incor-
     rect transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii
     type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.

     ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses (IPv6 addresses with a form
     like ::ffff: indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by
     AF_INET sockets.  However, in certain IPv6 network configurations, this
     assumption is not true.  In such an environment, IPv4 mapped addresses
     must be passed to AF_INET6 sockets directly.  For example, if your site
     uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable to
     support your configuration.

BSD                              July 18, 2007                             BSD

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