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PERL(1pm)              Perl Programmers Reference Guide              PERL(1pm)


       perl - The Perl 5 language interpreter


       perl [ -sTtuUWX ]   [ -hv ] [ -V[:configvar] ]
            [ -cw ] [ -d[t][:debugger] ] [ -D[number/list] ]
            [ -pna ] [ -Fpattern ] [ -l[octal] ] [ -0[octal/hexadecimal] ]
            [ -Idir ] [ -m[-]module ] [ -M[-]'module...' ] [ -f ]
            [ -C [nnuummbbeerr//lliisstt] ]     [ -S ]    [ -x[dir] ]    [ -i[extension] ]
            [ [-e|-E] 'command' ] [ -- ] [ programfile ] [ argument ]...

       For more information on these options, you can run "perldoc perlrun".


       The perldoc program gives you access to all the documentation that comes
       with Perl.  You can get more documentation, tutorials and community
       support online at <>.

       If you're new to Perl, you should start by running "perldoc perlintro",
       which is a general intro for beginners and provides some background to
       help you navigate the rest of Perl's extensive documentation.  Run
       "perldoc perldoc" to learn more things you can do with perldoc.

       For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into several

           perl                Perl overview (this section)
           perlintro(1)           Perl introduction for beginners
           perlrun(1)             Perl execution and options
           perltoc(1)             Perl documentation table of contents

           perlreftut(1)          Perl references short introduction
           perldsc(1)             Perl data structures intro
           perllol(1)             Perl data structures: arrays of arrays

           perlrequick(1)         Perl regular expressions quick start
           perlretut(1)           Perl regular expressions tutorial

           perlootut(1)           Perl OO tutorial for beginners

           perlperf  (1)         Perl Performance and Optimization Techniques

           perlstyle(1)           Perl style guide

           perlcheat(1)           Perl cheat sheet
           perltrap(1)            Perl traps for the unwary
           perldebtut(1)          Perl debugging tutorial

           perlfaq             Perl frequently asked questions
             perlfaq1(1)          General Questions About Perl
             perlfaq2(1)          Obtaining and Learning about Perl
             perlfaq3(1)          Programming Tools
             perlfaq4(1)          Data Manipulation
             perlfaq5(1)          Files and Formats
             perlfaq6(1)          Regexes
             perlfaq7(1)          Perl Language Issues
             perlfaq8(1)          System Interaction
             perlfaq9(1)          Networking

   Reference Manual
           perlsyn(1)             Perl syntax
           perldata(1)            Perl data structures
           perlop(1)              Perl operators and precedence
           perlsub(1)             Perl subroutines
           perlfunc(1)            Perl built-in functions
             perlopentut(1)       Perl open() tutorial
             perlpacktut(1)       Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial
           perlpod(1)             Perl plain old documentation
           perlpodspec(1)         Perl plain old documentation format specification(1)
           perldocstyle(1)        Perl style guide for core docs
           perlpodstyle(1)        Perl POD style guide
           perldiag(1)            Perl diagnostic messages
           perldeprecation(1)     Perl deprecations
           perllexwarn(1)         Perl warnings and their control
           perldebug(1)           Perl debugging
           perlvar(1)             Perl predefined variables
           perlre(1)              Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story
           perlrebackslash(1)     Perl regular expression backslash sequences
           perlrecharclass(1)     Perl regular expression character classes
           perlreref(1)           Perl regular expressions quick reference
           perlref(1)             Perl references, the rest of the story
           perlform(1)            Perl formats
           perlobj(1)             Perl objects
           perltie(1)             Perl objects hidden behind simple variables
             perldbmfilter(1)     Perl DBM filters

           perlipc(1)             Perl interprocess communication
           perlfork(1)            Perl fork() information
           perlnumber(1)          Perl number semantics

           perlthrtut(1)          Perl threads tutorial

           perlport(1)            Perl portability guide
           perllocale(1)          Perl locale support
           perluniintro(1)        Perl Unicode introduction
           perlunicode(1)         Perl Unicode support
           perlunicook(1)         Perl Unicode cookbook
           perlunifaq(1)          Perl Unicode FAQ
           perluniprops(1)        Index of Unicode Version 5.2.0 properties in Perl
           perlunitut(1)          Perl Unicode tutorial
           perlebcdic(1)          Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

           perlsec(1)             Perl security
           perlsecpolicy(1)       Perl security report handling policy

           perlmod(1)             Perl modules: how they work
           perlmodlib(1)          Perl modules: how to write and use
           perlmodstyle(1)        Perl modules: how to write modules with style
           perlmodinstall(1)      Perl modules: how to install from CPAN
           perlnewmod(1)          Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution
           perlpragma(1)          Perl modules: writing a user pragma

           perlutil(1)            utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

           perlfilter(1)          Perl source filters

           perldtrace(1)          Perl's support for DTrace

           perlglossary(1)        Perl Glossary

   Internals and C Language Interface
           perlembed(1)           Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application(1)
           perldebguts(1)         Perl debugging guts and tips
           perlxstut(1)           Perl XS tutorial
           perlxs(1)              Perl XS application programming interface
           perlxstypemap(1)       Perl XS C/Perl type conversion tools
           perlclib(1)            Internal replacements for standard C library functions(1)
           perlguts(1)            Perl internal functions for those doing extensions
           perlcall(1)            Perl calling conventions from C
           perlmroapi(1)          Perl method resolution plugin interface
           perlreapi(1)           Perl regular expression plugin interface
           perlreguts(1)          Perl regular expression engine internals

           perlapi(1)             Perl API listing (autogenerated)
           perlintern(1)          Perl internal functions (autogenerated)
           perliol(1)             C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers
           perlapio(1)            Perl internal IO abstraction interface

           perlhack(1)            Perl hackers guide
           perlsource(1)          Guide to the Perl source tree
           perlinterp(1)          Overview of the Perl intepreter source and how it works
           perlhacktut(1)         Walk through the creation of a simple C code patch
           perlhacktips(1)        Tips for Perl core C code hacking
           perlpolicy(1)          Perl development policies
           perlgov(1)             Perl Rules of Governance
           perlgit(1)             Using git with the Perl repository

           perlhist(1)            Perl history records
           perldelta(1)           Perl changes since previous version
           perl5340delta(3)       Perl changes in version 5.34.0
           perl5321delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.32.1
           perl5320delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.32.0
           perl5303delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.30.3
           perl5302delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.30.2
           perl5301delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.30.1
           perl5300delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.30.0
           perl5283delta(3)       Perl changes in version 5.28.3
           perl5282delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.28.2
           perl5281delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.28.1
           perl5280delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.28.0
           perl5263delta(3)       Perl changes in version 5.26.3
           perl5262delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.26.2
           perl5261delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.26.1
           perl5260delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.26.0
           perl5244delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.24.4
           perl5243delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.24.3
           perl5242delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.24.2
           perl5241delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.24.1
           perl5240delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.24.0
           perl5224delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.22.4
           perl5223delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.22.3
           perl5222delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.22.2
           perl5221delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.22.1
           perl5220delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.22.0
           perl5203delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.20.3
           perl5202delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.20.2
           perl5201delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.20.1
           perl5200delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.20.0
           perl5184delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.18.4
           perl5182delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.18.2
           perl5181delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.18.1
           perl5180delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.18.0
           perl5163delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.16.3
           perl5162delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.16.2
           perl5161delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.16.1
           perl5160delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.16.0
           perl5144delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.14.4
           perl5143delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.14.3
           perl5142delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.14.2
           perl5141delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.14.1
           perl5140delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.14.0
           perl5125delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.12.5
           perl5124delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.12.4
           perl5123delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.12.3
           perl5122delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.12.2
           perl5121delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.12.1
           perl5120delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.12.0
           perl5101delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.10.1
           perl5100delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.10.0
           perl589delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.9
           perl588delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.8
           perl587delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.7
           perl586delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.6
           perl585delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.5
           perl584delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.4
           perl583delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.3
           perl582delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.2
           perl581delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.8.1
           perl58delta(1)         Perl changes in version 5.8.0
           perl561delta(1)        Perl changes in version 5.6.1
           perl56delta(1)         Perl changes in version 5.6
           perl5005delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.005
           perl5004delta(1)       Perl changes in version 5.004

           perlbook(1)            Perl book information
           perlcommunity(1)       Perl community information

           perldoc(1)             Look up Perl documentation in Pod format

           perlexperiment(1)      A listing of experimental features in Perl

           perlartistic(1)        Perl Artistic License
           perlgpl(1)             GNU General Public License

           perlcn              Perl for Simplified Chinese (in UTF-8)
           perljp              Perl for Japanese (in EUC-JP)
           perlko              Perl for Korean (in EUC-KR)
           perltw              Perl for Traditional Chinese (in Big5)

           perlaix(1)             Perl notes for AIX
           perlamiga(1)           Perl notes for AmigaOS
           perlandroid(1)         Perl notes for Android
           perlbs2000(1)          Perl notes for POSIX-BC BS2000
           perlcygwin(1)          Perl notes for Cygwin
           perldos(1)             Perl notes for DOS
           perlfreebsd(1)         Perl notes for FreeBSD
           perlhaiku(1)           Perl notes for Haiku
           perlhpux(1)            Perl notes for HP-UX
           perlhurd(1)            Perl notes for Hurd
           perlirix(1)            Perl notes for Irix
           perllinux(1)           Perl notes for Linux
           perlmacos(1)           Perl notes for Mac OS (Classic)
           perlmacosx(1)          Perl notes for Mac OS X
           perlnetware(1)         Perl notes for NetWare
           perlopenbsd(1)         Perl notes for OpenBSD
           perlos2(1)             Perl notes for OS/2
           perlos390(1)           Perl notes for OS/390
           perlos400(1)           Perl notes for OS/400
           perlplan9(1)           Perl notes for Plan 9
           perlqnx(1)             Perl notes for QNX
           perlriscos(1)          Perl notes for RISC OS
           perlsolaris(1)         Perl notes for Solaris
           perlsynology(1)        Perl notes for Synology
           perltru64(1)           Perl notes for Tru64
           perlvms(1)             Perl notes for VMS
           perlvos(1)             Perl notes for Stratus VOS
           perlwin32(1)           Perl notes for Windows

   Stubs for Deleted Documents

       On a Unix-like system, these documentation files will usually also be
       available as manpages for use with the man program.

       Some documentation is not available as man pages, so if a cross-reference
       is not found by man, try it with perldoc.  Perldoc can also take you
       directly to documentation for functions (with the -f switch). See
       "perldoc --help" (or "perldoc perldoc" or "man perldoc") for other
       helpful options perldoc has to offer.

       In general, if something strange has gone wrong with your program and
       you're not sure where you should look for help, try making your code
       comply with use strict and use warnings.  These will often point out
       exactly where the trouble is.


       Perl officially stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language,
       except when it doesn't.

       Perl was originally a language optimized for scanning arbitrary text
       files, extracting information from those text files, and printing reports
       based on that information.  It quickly became a good language for many
       system management tasks. Over the years, Perl has grown into a general-
       purpose programming language. It's widely used for everything from quick
       "one-liners" to full-scale application development.

       The language is intended to be practical (easy to use, efficient,
       complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant, minimal).  It combines
       (in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the best features of sed, awk,
       and sh, making it familiar and easy to use for Unix users to whip up
       quick solutions to annoying problems.  Its general-purpose programming
       facilities support procedural, functional, and object-oriented
       programming paradigms, making Perl a comfortable language for the long
       haul on major projects, whatever your bent.

       Perl's roots in text processing haven't been forgotten over the years.
       It still boasts some of the most powerful regular expressions to be found
       anywhere, and its support for Unicode text is world-class.  It handles
       all kinds of structured text, too, through an extensive collection of
       extensions.  Those libraries, collected in the CPAN, provide ready-made
       solutions to an astounding array of problems.  When they haven't set the
       standard themselves, they steal from the best -- just like Perl itself.


       Perl is available for most operating systems, including virtually all
       Unix-like platforms.  See "Supported Platforms" in perlport for a


       See "ENVIRONMENT" in perlrun(1).


       Larry Wall <>, with the help of oodles of other folks.

       If your Perl success stories and testimonials may be of help to others
       who wish to advocate the use of Perl in their applications, or if you
       wish to simply express your gratitude to Larry and the Perl developers,
       please write to .


        "@INC"                 locations of perl libraries

       "@INC" above is a reference to the built-in variable of the same name;
       see perlvar for more information.

SEE ALSO       the Perl homepage       Perl articles       the Comprehensive Perl Archive         the Perl Mongers


       Using the "use strict" pragma ensures that all variables are properly
       declared and prevents other misuses of legacy Perl features.

       The "use warnings" pragma produces some lovely diagnostics. One can also
       use the -w flag, but its use is normally discouraged, because it gets
       applied to all executed Perl code, including that not under your control.

       See perldiag(1) for explanations of all Perl's diagnostics.  The "use
       diagnostics" pragma automatically turns Perl's normally terse warnings
       and errors into these longer forms.

       Compilation errors will tell you the line number of the error, with an
       indication of the next token or token type that was to be examined.  (In
       a script passed to Perl via -e switches, each -e is counted as one line.)

       Setuid scripts have additional constraints that can produce error
       messages such as "Insecure dependency".  See perlsec.

       Did we mention that you should definitely consider using the use warnings


       The behavior implied by the use warnings pragma is not mandatory.

       Perl is at the mercy of your machine's definitions of various operations
       such as type casting, atof(), and floating-point output with sprintf().

       If your stdio requires a seek or eof between reads and writes on a
       particular stream, so does Perl.  (This doesn't apply to sysread() and

       While none of the built-in data types have any arbitrary size limits
       (apart from memory size), there are still a few arbitrary limits:  a
       given variable name may not be longer than 251 characters.  Line numbers
       displayed by diagnostics are internally stored as short integers, so they
       are limited to a maximum of 65535 (higher numbers usually being affected
       by wraparound).

       You may submit your bug reports (be sure to include full configuration
       information as output by the myconfig program in the perl source tree, or
       by "perl -V") to <>.

       Perl actually stands for Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister, but
       don't tell anyone I said that.


       The Perl motto is "There's more than one way to do it."  Divining how
       many more is left as an exercise to the reader.

       The three principal virtues of a programmer are Laziness, Impatience, and
       Hubris.  See the Camel Book for why.

perl v5.34.1                       2022-02-26                          PERL(1pm)

perl 5.34.1 - Generated Thu Aug 25 19:06:15 CDT 2022
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